Oophoritis: symptoms and treatment
Oophoritis is the inflammation of the ovaries .It can be one-sided and bilateral, acute and chronic.In women of reproductive age, prolonged oophoritis can lead to infertility and disharmony in sexual life.If an acute inflammation of the ovaries with purulent complications develops, a threat to life may occur.
Isolated oophoritis is rare.In most cases, there is adnexitis or salpingoophoritis - inflammation of the ovaries, and the fallopian tubes( these reproductive organs are called the appendages of the uterus).Table of contents: Causes of oophoritis Symptoms of oophoritis Diagnosis Treatment of oophoritis When is the surgical treatment shown?Prevention
Causes of oophoritis
Inflammation in the ovaries can develop in various pathological situations.Among them, the main place, of course, is occupied by infection .However, minor pelvic region injuries, inflammatory diseases of the ovarian organs adjacent to the ovaries, as well as changes in the ovarian structure observed by
Infectious agents can enter the internal reproductive organs both from the outside( through the vagina) and through the blood and lymphatic drainage. The following infectious agents have the greatest importance in the development of oophoritis:
- of staphylococci;
- E. coli.
Factors provoking penetration of these pathogens into the ovaries:
- non-observance of intimate hygiene;
- too intensive douching of the vagina;
- incorrect use of antibiotics;
- decreased immune defense;
- hormonal disorders;
- gynecological procedures and operations( abortion, diagnostic curettage, installation of intrauterine spirals, etc.);
- unprotected sex.
In addition, the infection can penetrate from the anatomical structures adjacent to the ovaries.This is possible with appendicitis, peritonitis, cystitis and other diseases.
The most common cause of chronic oophoritis is untreated acute oophoritis. Provoke an exacerbation of chronic oophoritis can be hypothermia, severe stress, overfatigue, medical and diagnostic manipulation on the genitals.
Symptoms of oophoritis
Acute oophoritis is characterized by a pronounced clinical picture.Patients are usually worried:
- pain in the lower abdomen;
- pathological vaginal discharge( their nature is often determined by the infection that caused the inflammatory process);
- increased body temperature;
- severe soreness during sex;
- a violation of the digestive system( there may be diarrhea, vomiting, nausea);
- muscle pain;
- marked weakness.
Chronic oophoritis in turn proceeds more secretly to - no severe pain, discharge, temperature, etc. However, pathology makes itself felt by various disorders of the menstrual cycle, infertility, hormonal disorders, discomfort during intercourse. Some patients experience pain during ovulation, when a mature egg leaves the ovary, which is accompanied by a violation of its integrity.
The development of infertility in chronic inflammation of the ovaries is associated with both hormonal imbalance( it is the ovaries that synthesize the bulk of female sex hormones) and the violation of egg production.
Women with suspected ovarian inflammation should undergo a comprehensive examination, as the clinical picture of this ailment is very similar to the mass of other gynecological( and not only) diseases.
The patient survey plan usually includes:
- gynecological examination;
- ultrasound scan of the pelvic organs;
- studies for infection;
- blood and urine test.
In some cases, resort to diagnostic laparoscopy, during which immediately can be carried out and treatment activities.
It is necessary to visit a gynecologist and undergo a checkup to identify possible chronic inflammation of the ovaries for women who suffer from infertility, have various problems with menstruation( delays, severe soreness, abundant or otherwise meager bleeding), can not fully live an intimate life due to pain andDiscomfort.
Treatment of oophoritis
The tactics of treating oophoritis depend on the clinical picture of the disease.In most cases, it is possible to eliminate inflammation by conservative methods.If the purulent process develops, doctors need to resort to surgical intervention.
Conservative methods of treatment of oophoritis include:
- drug therapy;
- gynecological massage;
- phytotherapy( exclusively as an auxiliary method).
The goal of drug treatment for ovarian inflammation is to eliminate infectious agents, reduce the intensity of the inflammatory reaction and increase the immune defense, normalize the functioning of the ovaries.For this, gynecologists are prescribed to patients:
- Antibiotics ( one or more - all depends on the pathogens isolated during the analysis).Preference is given to drugs with a wide spectrum of action, which penetrate well into the tissues of the ovary.
- Anti-inflammatory drugs .They relieve inflammation and reduce the severity of the pain syndrome.Apply them orally or rectally( in the form of suppositories).
- Immunomodulators ( most often interferon-based drugs).
- Combined oral contraceptives ( normalize the secretory activity of the ovaries).
- Vitamin Complexes .
Among a wide range of physiotherapeutic procedures, the following are preferred:
- laser therapy;
The use of physiotherapy methods is possible only after the acute symptoms of the disease have been eliminated.Thanks to physiotherapeutic effects, it is possible to achieve complete cessation of the inflammatory process and prevent the occurrence of adhesions( inflamed ovaries can "stick together" in a conglomerate with surrounding organs).
When is the surgical treatment shown?
Surgical treatment is used in case of purulent complications - tubo-ovarian abscess and pelvic peritonitis .To prevent these complications, it is necessary to consult a doctor right away, rather than self-medicate.
If pus accumulates in the ovaries and fallopian tubes, is performed by the laparoscopic operation.It is of low trauma, since it does not require extensive access to the operated organ.All surgical manipulations are carried out through small incisions under the control of optical technology.
In the case of the spread of the inflammatory process to the peritoneum surrounding the reproductive organs( this pathology is called pelvioperitonitis), is performed by the hollow operation, which allows better abdominal and pelvic cavity sanitation.If the inflammatory process is started, may require the radical removal of the of the affected ovary together with the fallopian tube.
Prevention of ooforitis includes:
- Regular gynecological examinations.Each woman should visit the gynecologist at least once a year for preventive purposes, since many women's diseases can be asymptomatic.
- Timely detection of inflammatory processes in the reproductive organs( any harmless vaginitis or cervicitis can become a source of infection for the uterus and its appendages).
- Protection against sexually transmitted infections.
- Diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory diseases of organs located near the ovaries.
- Healthy lifestyle.Proper nutrition, rejection of bad habits, physical activity, full sleep and rest - all these factors increase the ability of the female body to resist infections.
It is important to remember that the ovary is the organ on whose condition the ability of a woman to have children depends.Therefore, any pathological changes in it are reflected in the reproductive function.Particularly unsafe chronic inflammatory processes. Against the backdrop of chronic oophoritis, there are problems with conception, and in the case of the onset of a long-awaited pregnancy, various complications of pregnancy.
Zubkova Olga Sergeevna, medical reviewer, epidemiologist-doctor