Uterine bleeding: causes, symptoms and first aid
Uterine bleeding refers to dangerous conditions that threaten not only health, but also the life of a woman.That's why doctors strongly recommend at the first signs of this pathological condition to immediately resort to qualified medical care - in this case, everything is decided not even by hours but minutes.To address the doctors was timely, you need to know not only the signs of uterine bleeding, but also its possible causes.Table of contents:
Causes of uterine bleeding
In fact, there are a lot of causes and provoking factors that lead to the development of uterine bleeding.In this material, only the most significant, often occurring of them will be considered.
They are particularly prevalent in women aged 30-40 years, and this can be caused by violations of the ovulation process.Such disorders are caused by hormonal imbalance, which, in turn, leads to active growth of the endometrium( internal mucous membrane of the uterus) and an increase in the permeability of blood vessels - bleeding in this case can be different in intensity and duration.
Separately it is worth mentioning that uterine bleeding can occur directly during menstruation - a condition in medicine called menorrhagia, characterized by abundant and prolonged bloody discharge.
Factors that can lead to abnormalities in the hormonal system of the female body:
- lack of vitamins and trace elements;
- emotional overload, including stress, nerve;
- pathology of the reproductive system, proceeding in chronic form;
- diseases of the thyroid and adrenal glands;
- chronic diseases of infectious etiology.
Diseases of the internal organs of the reproductive system
Malignant / benign tumors, ovary rupture against progressive adnexitis( inflammatory process), and uterine trauma( for example, after some medical manipulations), and erosive changes inThe mucous membrane of the cervix, and the inflammatory process in the cervical canal( cervicitis).
Uterine bleeding due to genital diseases occurs rarely .First, all of the above pathologies are accompanied by a severe clinical picture and therefore women seek medical help.Secondly, in some pathologies, doctors can predict a high likelihood of the condition under consideration and leave a woman in a medical institution to monitor the situation.
Note : uterine bleeding may develop during pregnancy.In this case, there is a danger not only for the life of the woman, but also for the life of the child.
Uterine bleeding during pregnancy
If this pathological condition develops early( the first trimester), then the causes are:
- a pregnancy that develops with impairments - for example, an ectopic pregnancy;
- pathology of the fetal egg - for example, a malignant tumor in the chorion, a bubble drift;
- started spontaneous abortion or miscarriage.
In the second and third trimester of pregnancy, uterine bleeding can develop against a background of premature detachment of the placenta, pathological processes in the cervix, which led to its destruction.
At any time of pregnancy, this pathological condition can occur due to the existing scar on the uterus.He usually remains after cesarean section or abdominal operations for gynecological diseases, and during the next pregnancy the uterus begins to increase, stretch, which leads to rupture of the scar.
What indicates uterine bleeding
Uterine bleeding often develops sharply, that is, a woman immediately understands what is happening to her, since too much blood starts to be released from the vagina .But often the condition under consideration develops gradually, all signs appear one after another and therefore it is important to quickly find out the reasons for the deterioration of well-being.
General signs of started uterine bleeding:
- strong general weakness, increased drowsiness and light dizziness;
- the skin of the face becomes pale, and the upper / lower limbs - cold to the touch;
- the woman is in a semi-faint state;
- very rarely seen attacks of nausea, vomiting almost never happens, but there are exceptions.
If at the time of such deterioration of well-being there is a possibility to measure blood pressure, its indices will be low, but there may be a rapid pulse.
The above listed signs of uterine bleeding started are nonspecific, it will be extremely difficult to diagnose the condition in question. But there are local symptoms, that is, specific signs:
- has blood vaginal discharge;
- if uterine bleeding started during menstruation, the woman on the pad may notice a large amount of clots emerging from the vagina, and the gasket or swab itself gets wet quickly, they have to be changed every 1-2 hours;
- no pain syndrome, but in rare cases there may be sensations simulating contractions, with localization in the lower abdomen.
Help with uterine bleeding
If you see signs of uterine bleeding, immediately call an ambulance and go to a medical institution!There should not be any independent intake of medicines or funds from the category of "traditional medicine".A woman should understand that the condition in question threatens her life.
To help a woman in the hospital
First, a patient with uterine bleeding symptoms will place a cold compress or ice pack on her lower abdomen - this will lead to narrowing of the blood vessels and reduce the intensity of bleeding. Secondly, specialists will quickly find out the possible causes of uterine bleeding:
- to interview the patient for the presence of pregnancy or chronic diseases, facts of medical manipulations in the recent past;
- conduct blood sampling for urgent laboratory testing;
- perform ultrasound examination of the pelvic organs.
Third, a woman will be prescribed medication.She is selected in a strictly individual order and only after the doctor is satisfied that urgent surgical intervention is not required.
Hormonal drugs - Jeanine, Regulon, Non-vellon
These drugs can be stopped only by women who have not yet given birth, but are at risk of developing neoplasms in the endometrium.It is possible to apply such medications to those patients who had diagnostic scraping of the uterus( 3 months before the event) and after the study of the biomaterial no pathologies of the endometrium were found.
The dosage and the regimen are calculated by the doctor individually, but as a rule, the woman should take a maximum of 6 tablets before the bleeding stops, and then every day the dose is reduced by 1 tablet from the original amount.
Note: this method of stopping uterine bleeding differs in duration, slowness, and therefore it can not be used categorically in the care of a woman with anemia.
Blood repair preparations
It is understood that doctors can designate:
- Aminocaproic acid - 30 ml orally 3-5 times a day, or intravenous( drip) in an amount of 100 ml;
- Dicinone - administered intramuscularly 1-4 times a day for a week for 2 ml per injection, or 1 tablet 4 times a day inside;
- Tranexam - use with intensive bleeding, inject it 3-4 times a day for 1500 mg per injection for a minimum of 3 days;
- Ascorutin - is taken internally at 0, 25 mg three times a day for a week( will strengthen the walls of blood vessels);
- Ergotal - is administered intramuscularly by 1 ml per injection.Strictly forbidden with diagnosed uterine myoma!
Any medications should be taken only under the supervision of .They will observe the dynamics of the pathological condition, because in the absence of a decrease in the intensity of bleeding a woman may be prescribed a surgical intervention.
It is used only in those cases where the uterine bleeding can not be stopped by medicinal preparations for 2 days and there is even a decrease in its intensity during the first hours of care. Doctors can apply the following surgical methods for stopping uterine bleeding:
- cryodestruction - special devices that contain liquid nitrogen affect the layer of the uterus that has undergone pathological changes and "krovit";
- laser removal of endometrium - ablation, it is possible to use electromagnetic energy, ball electrode and loop;
- scraping with the surgical instrument of the uterus cavity or the walls of the cervical canal.
Than it is possible to help at home
If you seek for qualified medical help immediately after the appearance of the first signs of uterine bleeding there is no possibility, then you can do something at home.But such measures are classified as "first aid" and do not mean that you can do without medical assistance!
Algorithm of Action:
- The woman should go to bed so that her lower limbs are in a raised state( under them a roll or pillow is placed).
- An ice bubble can be placed on the bottom of the stomach( frozen ravioli and meat from the refrigerator are suitable), but it must be wrapped with a towel so that there is no hypothermia.Cold apply for a maximum of 15 minutes, then take a break in 1-2 minutes and again you can use it. This procedure lasts a maximum of 2 hours.
- A woman must make up for the loss of fluids - she needs to consume enough water, can replace her with a rose hips decoction or sweet tea with lemon.
Note: allows the use of drugs with a blood-stopping effect - Vikasol, tincture of nettle or water pepper, aminocaproic acid.Be sure to consult a doctor before using medication, at least in the phone mode!
Bleeding should not be left without attention.Many sources recommend using various herbal medicinal herbs, but this should not be done in any case!Traditional medicine in case of uterine bleeding can lead to the death of a woman, as it is not always effective.In any case, the help of specialists will be needed and if it is provided in a timely manner, the forecasts will be favorable.
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapist of the highest qualification category