Breast Cyst: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment
Breast diseases are considered to be one of the most common pathologies of the modern world.Their diagnosis often occurs in the early stages of development, but women are still too little aware of the nature of the pathology of the breast can bear, what treatment is implied in the detection of pathology and other nuances.This material will give information about the breast cyst, which will help a woman to identify the disease on her own and apply for qualified medical help on time.Table of contents:
What is the
breast cyst? A cyst is an education that is pathological in nature and can be multiple or solitary.This pathological neoplasm consists of a wall and liquid contents inside, can have very different characteristics. Here is what doctors and scientists know about the breast cyst:
- The cyst in the breast is a cavity or capsule, the interior of which is filled with liquid.
- Before the formation under consideration is formed, the dairy ducts of the gland expand, they accumulate a secret and form a capsule of the fibrous type.
- In the cyst can be formed a different color in color - yellow, brown, dark green, which depends on its composition and the prescription of the neoplasm.Often, the liquid in its composition has dense patches that are calcified - this is not dangerous, but merely indicates that the cyst has existed for too long.
- The cyst can have walls of different thicknesses - it depends only on how long the education in question exists.
- Most often the cyst is a benign neoplasm, but in some cases it can contain malignant cells.
- For a long time a woman with an already formed cyst does not feel any symptoms, which is quite dangerous, since it can lead to suppuration and inflammation of the cavity of education.
- The considered formation can have the various form, its sizes are variable - from some millimeters to 5 centimeters in diameter and more.
- A cyst can form on one breast, but more often doctors diagnose cysts immediately on both mammary glands.
- Most often, this pathology is diagnosed in women aged 35-60 years, especially if they do not have children.
Classification of the breast cyst
Depending on the type of breast cyst formed in a woman, the clinical picture of the disease will also depend.
Atypical cyst of the breast
This cyst has a fibrous capsule of round or oval shape of different size.Atypical cyst refers to benign neoplasms that have proliferations.Symptoms of this kind of cysts will not be specific, but rather they are general in nature.
Fibrous Breast Cyst
It occupies a central place in oncology and is a background disease in the development of breast cancer. This kind of mammary gland under consideration will be characterized by the following symptoms:
- Increased chest pain before menstruation;
- sensation of the presence of a foreign body in the chest;
- from the nipples is constantly secreted fluid;
- during manual examination of a dairy woman it is easy to feel grouchvidnye nodal seals.
The causes of the appearance of the fibrous cyst in the mammary glands have not been fully studied to the end, but it is known that this process can provoke a hormonal failure against the climacteric period, weakened immunity and disrupts the work of individual organs.
Solitary cyst of the breast
The formation of a rounded shape and elastic consistency, containing a liquid of different colors.The longer a cyst exists, the denser its capsule.The cyst is a large cavity, which is located only in one breast.The reasons for the development of this type of education are:
- multiple abortions;
- endocrine disruption;
- late delivery;
- heavy weight;
- age of woman over 35 years of age;
- chronic mastitis;
- complete rejection of breastfeeding;
- stress and disturbance of psycho-emotional background;
- Breast Injury.
This kind of breast cyst is manifested by severe chest pains that are particularly sensitive in the second phase of the menstrual cycle, burning and itching in the chest area. It is interesting that pain from the breast can "give" to the scapula, neck and shoulder, but as soon as the men's period ends, all the unpleasant sensations disappear on their own.
Note: solitary cyst can be revealed by the woman herself - it is only necessary to feel the mammary gland and determine the presence of a dense formation.
This cyst develops at any age, but is more often diagnosed in women after 48 years.Despite the fact that there are no reliable facts, the doctors are sure that the ductal cyst of the breast is a full-fledged precancerous state of , but is classified as a benign neoplasm.
The provoking factors that contribute to the development of the ductal cyst of the breast include:
- ovarian dysfunction;
- is a hormonal disorder;
- excess weight in a woman;
- diseases of an endocrine nature;
- frequent stress.
The main symptom of the presence of the ductal cyst in the mammary gland is the discharge from the nipples, which may have a green, brown or bloody shade of to, although they may be completely transparent.If this type of education has formed in the area of the milk ducts, then it can be clearly defined by palpation of the breast.
Multiple breast cyst
A very unpleasant disease characterized by the formation of multiple cavities around the main one.Determine the disease the doctor can by carrying out an ultrasound. The main reason for the development of this type of education in the mammary gland is a wrong lifestyle, but there are some provoking factors:
- irrational nutrition;
- long-term administration of medications;
- disturbance of metabolic processes in the body;
- malfunctioning of the hormonal system;
- is an infectious disease.
The multi-chambered cyst of the breast is dangerous because at any time it can go to a malignant tumor.
Symptoms of the breast cyst
The considered formations in the mammary gland can for a long time not disturb the woman at all, but as soon as the size of the cyst begins to increase, the following symptoms will occur:
- Burning, soreness of the location of the cyst, pullingPain - these signs indicate a large cyst.If the mammary gland is probed, the presence of the cyst will "give out" the pronounced irregularities / tubercles.
- In some cases, the cyst manifests itself as secretions from the nipples, which indicates that the formation in question has a direct connection to the milk ducts.
- If the size of the cyst is too large, then the chest begins to deform, the skin color changes, which turns red and even cyanotic.
- High body temperature, redness of the breast, enlarged lymph nodes in the armpit, these signs will indicate the developing inflammation in the cyst cavity.
Note: if the cyst is small, it does not cause any problems to the woman in the period between monthly, but the large cyst has pronounced signs regardless of the menstrual cycle.
Diagnostic methods of the breast cyst
A mammologist( a doctor who deals with the treatment of breast diseases) can detect a cyst even with palpation, but only if it is medium or large.In general, cysts can be diagnosed by ultrasound or mammography.Ultrasound examination not only confirms the existence of the examined formation, but also allows the doctor to determine whether there are intra-intestinal formations in her cavity, what shape and size.This study also makes it possible to differentiate the mammary fibroadenoma from the cyst.
If the case is complicated, the specialist can assign the patient a magnetic resonance imaging of the breast - the most informative and safe diagnostic procedure.If a papilloma cyst is found in the cavity, doctors will necessarily perform a biopsy - taking the contents of the cyst for histological examination, during which the form of education will be determined - benign or malignant.
Treatment of the breast cyst
Once a woman has a suspicion about having a cyst in the mammary gland, she needs to contact a mammologist who not only diagnoses and determines the type / size / form of education, but also prescribes an effective treatment for .Of course, such solutions are selected only on an individual basis, but there are general principles for treating the pathology in question:
- If the cyst is small( up to 0.5 mm), then there can be no question of surgical treatment, The doctor will direct his actions only to normalize and stabilize the hormonal balance.Most likely, the patient will have to undergo a test with a gynecologist, an immunologist and an endocrinologist to get a really effective treatment.
- A puncture of the cyst can be performed to treat the cyst.This procedure consists of inserting a thin needle into the cavity of the cyst through which all the liquid is pumped out, and in its place a special solution that destroys the walls of the capsule of the formation is poured.This method of treatment can be used only if a single-cell cyst is diagnosed.
- Aspiration - a thin cannula is inserted into the cavity of the cyst, all liquid is pumped through it.If there are no impurities in the fluid, then no treatment is required, but even a small amount of blood "fibers" in the pumped liquid is the reason for additional examinations and the appointment of a full-fledged treatment.
- Hormone replacement therapy.Many mammologists prefer hormone therapy, which strengthens the immune system and allows not only to get rid of the education in question, but also to prevent relapses of the disease.
Separately it is worth mentioning such a method of treatment of the breast cyst as drainage.To do this, with the help of a thin needle, the formation is pierced, the contents of the cavity are pumped out, and either ozone or air is introduced into the released space. This method of treatment is considered conservative and less traumatic, but it can be used only in case of diagnosis of single-chamber benign cysts .A woman after drainage of the breast cyst will have to undergo a 6-month check-up with a specialist, which is necessary for the timely detection of relapses.
Note: if a patient is offered to introduce ethyl alcohol into the cavity of the cyst in the process of drainage, and not ozone or air, then it is worth to abandon the services of such "specialists".This method is very dangerous, since ethyl alcohol can cause tissue necrosis.
If aspiration and drainage give only a short-term positive effect and relapses occur frequently, doctors will recommend removal of the formation by vacuum aspiration.But such an output is possible only if the cyst studies did not confirm the presence of malignant cells.
Laparoscopic removal of the breast cyst
Modern medicine often encounters the inability to cure the disease in question by therapeutic methods.In such a case, a surgical removal of the breast cyst may be prescribed to a woman, but there is no need to panic - such interventions are conducted with the preservation of the organ, therefore, there will not be any aesthetic / moral discomfort.
What you need to know about the operation:
- Intervention is performed using anesthesia, which can be general and local - this moment is determined individually.During the operation, an anesthesiologist is always present near the patient.
- On the chest wall are small sizes that provide access to education.A laparoscope with a built-in video camera is inserted into one incision, in the other one - a special tool, which is intended for the operation.
- The image is transferred to the monitor, which allows surgeons to control their own work - puncturing cysts, drawing fluid out of it and introducing a special solution that destroys the walls of the formation.
Laparoscopy is considered a complete surgical procedure, so the patient must prepare for it - hand over all tests, pass the ECG and refrain from eating 8 hours before the appointed hour. This method of surgical treatment of the disease in question has great advantages:
- minimal trauma;
- no complications( in 98% of cases);
- on the mammary gland remain small, miniature incisions;
- wounds after surgery very quickly heal.
Medicine knows cases when the cyst of the breast dissolves itself, but it should be treated in any case!It is impossible to hope for a miracle and to wait for an independent recovery - the resorption of the cyst is an exception, rather than a regularity.A woman should not rely on traditional medicine, although it will be useful for her to take decoctions of herbal remedies that enhance immunity.It is strictly forbidden to make compresses, as this may cause the growth of education, although lotions from grasses are completely permissible.But any destination should do a mammal - from diagnostic procedures to surgery.And this rule the woman should not violate, because the risk of degeneration of benign education into malignant remains very high.
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapist of the highest qualification category