Sinusitis: symptoms, diagnosis, treatment with medicines and folk remedies
Jun 01, 2018
Sinusitis is an inflammatory process with localization in the paranasal sinuses.This disease is never the primary, usually sinusitis is a consequence of untreated rhinitis.Doctors consider several causes and factors that can trigger the development of this pathological process.Regardless of the etiology, sinusitis should be subjected to professional treatment - the risk of severe complications is very high.Table of contents: Causes of genyritis Symptoms of genyantritis Classification of maxillary sinusitis Possible complications of sinusitis How to treat sinusitis?
The causes of sinusitis
The main reason for the development of the inflammatory process in the paranasal sinuses of the nose is that doctors consider infection - most often when examining the contents of the sinus, the presence of staphylococcus is revealed.But sinusitis can occur with prolonged rhinitis( lingering rhinitis), weakened immune system - there are many options. Medicine identifies several factors that can trigger the development of the pathological process under consideration:
- trauma to the mucosal cover of the paranasal sinuses;
- permanent inhalation of dry and hot air, toxic substances - usually this is typical for harmful production;
- inflammatory and / or infectious processes in the teeth and in the oral cavity in general - for example, untreated caries of the upper row of teeth;
- pathological changes in the structure of the nasal septum;
- regular body hypothermia;
- diagnosis of polyps in the nasal passages and sinuses;
- atypical body reaction to external stimuli - allergy;
- tuberculosis, fungal infections.
Note: sinusitis can develop as a result of improper treatment of rhinitis( rhinitis).For example, too long reception of the same drops leads to their addiction - the mucus continues to accumulate in the nasal passages, spreads into the maxillary sinuses.
Very rarely, the cause of the development of the inflammatory process under consideration can be a violation of the secretory function of the nasal mucosa and maxillary sinuses.
Symptoms of sinusitis
Sinusitis has the distinctive symptoms:
- on the background of general nasal congestion, there is pain in the nasal region and the anatomical location of the maxillary sinuses;
- in the secretion of mucus from the nose appear "fibers" of pus;
- when the head is tilted, the pressure in the nose and forehead increases;
- headaches first disturb only with activity, with the development of inflammation - at rest;
- hyperemia - increased body temperature;
- breathing is difficult and accompanied by a dry and debilitating cough.
In addition, the patient experiences general signs of intoxication of the body - weakness, drowsiness, increased fatigue, often there is nausea, reduced efficiency. Note: the temperature of the body with genyantritis may increase variably:
- for acute disease, the indices will be very high, almost critical;
- in the chronic form of sinusitis hyperemia is rare, only during periods of exacerbation and is characterized by subfebrile.
The above described symptoms are considered to be the main ones in the inflammatory process, but some patients note the following symptoms:
- a clear nasal appearance appears - a conversation "in the nose";
- lacrimation greatly increased;
- , after eating food in the oral cavity, an unpleasant aftertaste remains;
- from the mouth and nose of a smelly smell.
Doctors classify and mucosal discharge from the nose in sinusitis:
- at an early stage of the disease they have a white color, are easily marked and practically do not create nasal congestion;
- with further development the mucus acquires a yellowish-green hue, it is hardly marked, the stuffiness of the nose acquires a permanent character;
- in severe sinusitis, the mucus becomes dense, green, it can contain blood veins and small clots of pus.
An effective method for diagnosing sinusitis is described in the video review:
Classification of sinusitis
Doctors can diagnose sinusitis on symptoms, but with a deeper examination of the patient, differentiation of the inflammatory process in the paranasal sinuses will be carried out. The following types are distinguished:
- Catarrhal sinusitis.It is most often diagnosed in children and adolescents, characterized by a slight swelling of the mucous membranes and their reddening.
- Double-sided sinusitis.Inflammation develops immediately in both maxillary sinuses, accompanied by a high body temperature and all the classic signs of inflammation.
- Polyposis sinusitis.Sinusitis of this kind always develops against the background of existing polyps in the nasal passages or directly of the maxillary sinuses.
- Chronic antritis.It is diagnosed only under the condition of previously detected acute sinusitis, it is characterized by periods of exacerbations and remissions.
- Allergic sinusitis.Occurs only if there is an external stimulus, is considered a seasonal disease, disappears immediately after the "seizure" of the allergen from the environment.
- Purulent maxillary sinusitis.A very severe form of the inflammatory process in the paranasal sinuses, the main cause of purulent sinusitis is the penetration into the nasal passages / sinuses of pathogenic microorganisms.
Possible complications of sinusitis
Many patients simply do not realize the danger of the inflammatory process under consideration - it is considered that the runny nose "passes by itself". And in fact, if you ignore the symptoms of sinusitis, the following complications can develop:
- inflammation of pharyngeal tonsils;
- transition of the acute form of the disease to chronic;
- develops otitis media( inflammation of the middle ear);
- is disturbed by the heart;
- is caused by diseases of the kidneys and joints;
- is affected by the inflammatory process of the brain.
How to treat sinusitis?We recommend that you read:
There are several different methods of treating sinusitis - a specific one is chosen only after examination of mucus, highlighting the cause of the inflammatory process.
Antibiotics for sinusitis
Doctors believe that without antibiotics( antibacterial drugs), treatment of sinusitis will not be effective - and they are absolutely right, especially in cases when pathogenic / pathogenic microorganisms became the cause of the inflammatory process. Among the variety of options, the most effective antibacterial drugs are:
- Ceftriaxone.The antibiotic of the last generation, active against many anaerobic / aerobic microorganisms, has an effect from the first days of admission, and the expected effect will appear 2 days after the start of treatment.
- Augmentin.Antibiotic of the third generation, has a bactericidal effect, can be used in the treatment of sinusitis and in adults, and in children - you only need to strictly observe the permitted dosages.
- Sumamed.A powerful antibacterial medicinal product, which in a maximum of 5 days will relieve the patient of all the symptoms of sinusitis.
- Macropen.The drug quickly penetrates into the blood and begins to have a beneficial effect within 20 minutes after the consumption of tablets.This drug can be prescribed to allergy sufferers - it belongs to hypoallergenic drugs.
- Sinupret.The preparation of vegetable origin, can be used only as a component of complex therapy.
Important: to take antibiotics during treatment of sinusitis is only necessary for the doctor's prescription - independently, without a laboratory examination of mucus and the isolation of pathogenic microorganisms, it is impossible to select an effective drug.With prolonged therapy with antibiotics, the normal level of intestinal function should be maintained, so consultation with the treating physician and selection of effective probiotics or prebiotics will be necessary.
Traditional medicine for sinusitis
Genyantritis can be successfully treated with folk remedies - many of them are approved by official medicine. For example, onion instillation will be effective:
- mix an equal amount of onion juice and alcohol, instill in each nasal passage of 1-2 drops in the evening;
- combine onion juice, cyclamen, calanchoe and aloe in equal proportions.Prepare wadded disks, fold them with thin tubes and moisten in the resulting mixture( reminiscent of a medicinal ointment).Then insert the moistened tubules from the cotton discs into each nostril for 10-15 minutes.The course of treatment is 20 days.
Very good for sinusitis helps salt - you can do compresses, and you can wash regularly the nasal passages and sinuses with saline.Effective will be warming up - in spite of the fact that there may be pus in the maxillary sinuses, warming it liquefies and contributes to its withdrawal.If the house has a blue lamp, then it can warm up the nose bridge area and the anatomical location of the maxillary sinuses for 10 minutes every 2-3 hours.If such a lamp is not available, put a bag of warm salt or sand on the nose for 15 minutes - the effect will be the same.
If you take inhalations every day with propolis or honey, breathing will become free literally after a day of procedures, you can also carry out the washing with honey water - the swelling of the mucosa will be much lower.
Surgical treatment of sinusitis
If the therapeutic treatment and traditional medicine do not have the proper effect, the patient's condition worsens, then doctors can decide to perform a surgical intervention - a puncture of the maxillary sinus is made.This procedure is unpleasant, accompanied by painful sensations, therefore it is carried out under local anesthesia.The result of the puncture of the maxillary sinus will be getting rid of the purulent contents of the paranasal sinuses, reducing the risk of developing the chronic form of the inflammatory process under consideration.About the puncture of the maxillary sinus, doctors say:
Note: sinus puncture in diagnosed chronic sinus does not mean a complete cure, but this will help to introduce the disease into long-term remission.
Sinusitis is considered to be a rather dangerous disease, so doctors insist on a full examination with a protracted runny nose and compliance with all prescriptions / recommendations of the treating doctor.According to statistics, relapses of sinusitis occur frequently - in 40% of cases, but when carrying out preventive measures they can be avoided long enough.
Prophylaxis of sinusitis is as follows:
- avoid supercooling;
- is regularly engaged in strengthening the immune system;
- treat the runny nose even at the initial stage of its appearance;
- in a timely manner to sanitize the oral cavity.
Sanatorium treatment in specialized institutions or regular trips to the sea will be very good.Before using any method of prevention, you should consult your doctor!More details about treatment and prevention of sinusitis:
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapeutist of the highest qualification category.