Sphenoiditis: symptoms and treatment
Jun 01, 2018
With frequent diseases of the upper respiratory tract, people sometimes have to face with such a disease as sphenoiditis - an inflammatory process with localization in the sphenoid sinus of the nose.It is located near the pituitary gland, carotid arteries and eye nerves, so sphenoiditis can not be designated as an easy pathology, although if the disease in question is acute and all medical measures are carried out in accordance with the prescribed treatment regimen by the doctor, then there can be no consequences.Conversely, if the sphenoiditis develops into a chronic form, the patient ignores the recommended treatment, then serious complications may develop.
The sphenoid sinuses are two in the nose, but the inflammation can be localized and in one of them( one-sided sphenoiditis is diagnosed), and immediately in both( bilateral sfenoiditis).Table of contents: Causes of development Symptoms of sphenoiditis How is sphenoiditis diagnosed? Sphenoiditis treatment
Causes of development
This disease occurs when pathogenic microorganisms - viruses, fungi or bacteria are present.Most often doctors diagnose sphenoiditis of bacterial or viral etiology, but the fungal type of the disease under consideration is much lower and is present mainly in people whose immunity is greatly weakened by the prolonged intake of antibacterial drugs( antibiotics).
In some cases, the development of sphenoiditis can provoke and anatomical features of the structure of the nose and its sinuses. These include:
- the presence of polyps or cysts - neoplasm of benign nature;
- small size of the sphenoid sinus;
- presence of any additional partitions;
- malignant neoplasms in the sinuses of the nose;
- absence of anastomosis.
Very often doctors when detecting such defects in the anatomical structure of the sinuses recommend patients to undergo surgical treatment - this will reduce the risk of sphenoiditis several times.
Symptoms of sphenoiditis
If a person develops acute sphenoiditis, then the following complaints will come from him:
- Increased body temperature, general weakness, increased drowsiness are the first signs of intoxication that arise, in principle, With the progression of any inflammatory process in the body.
Note: fever may be absent due to impaired thermoregulation or decreased immunity.
- Specific purulent discharge appears from the nasal passages - they are accompanied by an extremely unpleasant odor.
- Headache of intense character - it can have localization in temples, on the back of the head or in the forehead.It is noteworthy that such a headache with sphenoiditis is not removed even by the most powerful analgesics, it just becomes not so intense.
- Vision and perception of aromas are disturbed - such a sign of sphenoiditis is absent in some cases, but still it is one of the main ones.Patients say that in their eyes it becomes dark, some circles appear, the image is blurred.
If a specialist examines the nasal passages and nasal cavity with a special instrument( rhinoscope), then the following will be clearly identified:
- presence of a purulent secretion draining in the nasal( middle);
- redness and slight swelling of the mucosa;
- presence of pus in the nasopharynx.
Note: , due to the peculiarities of the location of the sphenoid sinus in the progression of sphenoiditis and the absence of treatment, serious complications can develop.These include:
- is an inflammation of the optic nerve;
- Brain abscess;
- Inflammation of meninges;
- sepsis and other pathologies dangerous to human life.
If it is a chronic form of the course of sphenoiditis, then its symptoms will be identical to the above.True, they appear periodically( during periods of exacerbation of the disease) and may not be so intense.
How is sphenoiditis diagnosed
As soon as the patient pays special attention to the incessant headache and the appearance of fetid discharge from the nasal passages, it is necessary to immediately seek medical help. Specialist otolaryngologist at the first admission of the patient will necessarily make appointments for the following procedures:
- X-ray of the nasal sinuses;
- computed tomography of the nasal sinuses and nearby organs;
- seeding of biomaterial from the nasopharynx to determine sensitivity to antibacterial drugs( antibiotics);
- laboratory examination of blood and urine.
This is how the diagnosis of sphenoiditis is established - it is impossible to do this alone, especially since there is a need to differentiate the inflammatory process in question from the same in other sinuses of the nose( for example, from sinusitis).Recommended to read:
Treatment of sphenoiditis
How, how long and how long the treatment of the disease will be treated, only the doctor will know - after receiving the results of the examination of the patient, he will be able to prescribe an effective course of therapy.
If the sphenoiditis is of bacterial origin, the patient will necessarily be prescribed a course of antibacterial drugs( antibiotics).Moreover, such treatment can be carried out both in a hospital and in an outpatient setting.
An antibacterial agent can be given both in the form of injections and in tablet form.But in any case, the choice of a specific drug from the group of antibiotics is carried out exclusively in an individual order - it all depends on the duration of the course of the inflammatory process, the depth of its spread, the identified pathogen.
Simultaneously with taking antibacterial drugs, the patient will be given irrigation and washing of the nasopharynx and sinuses of the nose with antiseptic and anti-inflammatory solutions.
To normalize the temperature of the patient's body, quickly relieve him of persistent headache and other unpleasant sensations, doctors make the following appointments:
- Paracetamol, Nurofen, Aspirin, Indomethacin are medicines from the group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs;
- Aquamarine, Quix and Aqualor are sprays made from salt water and necessary for regular rinsing of the nasal passages and sinuses;
- Nasobek, Baconase - medicines from the group of corticosteroids;
- Sinupret, Pinosol and Umkalor are nasal and nasal preparations that are manufactured solely on a plant basis%
- IRS 19 and other immunostimulating drugs.
Note: some physicians prescribe homeopathic remedies - the effect from them may be, but there is no scientific evidence for the "work" of such drugs.
Once the acute symptoms of the development of the inflammatory process have been eliminated, the patient is prescribed physiotherapy procedures - for the speedy recovery and, so to speak, fixing the result. These procedures include:
- balneological procedures;
- laser therapy and others.
If the cause of sphenoiditis was the anatomical features of the structure of the sphenoid sinus, the patient will be advised to undergo surgical treatment and correct the problem.Then the patient has to undergo a sufficiently long rehabilitation period with visits to the profile sanatoriums, and in the future will have to follow preventive measures and periodically undergo examinations with the attending physician.
Sphenoiditis is not the most common disease, otolaryngologists are much more often diagnosed as frontitis and sinusitis.But nevertheless, the danger of developing the inflammatory process in the sphenoid sinus should be remembered always and quickly react to the first signs of such a pathological process - this will guarantee a quick and simple treatment until complete recovery.
Yana Tsygankova, medical reviewer, therapeutist of the highest qualification category.