Atresia khohan: causes, symptoms, treatment methods and prevention in the child
Jun 01, 2018
Atresia of the cholera is a pathology of the respiratory tract, characterized by overgrowth of holes( khans) connecting the new cavity in the region of the pharynx with connective, bone or cartilaginous tissue.This pathology can be both congenital and acquired character.Table of contents: Varieties of atresia What is the cause of?How does the pathology manifest itself?Diagnostic measures How to treat?
Doctors-otolaryngologists distinguish the following types of atresia of the khohan:
- Partial or complete.In the first variant - in the pathological septum there are holes, but in the second one there are no holes.
- Single-sided or double-sided.In the first case, connective tissue covers only one nasal passage, and in the second - the septa close both khoans.
Note: although this pathology may be of an acquired nature, in most cases, atresia of the khohan is manifested in babies from birth!
Where does it come from?
The causes of congenital atresia of the khohans are not exactly established today, they are associated with violations of normal intrauterine development processes. To provoke this pathology, according to experts, the following factors may be:
- genetic predisposition;
- use of a pregnant woman with alcohol and drugs;
- severe poisoning, intoxication of the future mother's body;
- birth of a child in a marriage between close relatives;
- late pregnancy;
- transferred by a pregnant woman of an infectious nature;
- chronic diseases of the future mother( eg, pyelonephritis, diabetes mellitus);
- use while waiting for a baby embryotoxic medication.
The following factors can be the causes of atherosclerosis at early adolescence, according to doctors:
- Radiation exposure;
- sharp changes in temperature conditions;
- exposure to ultraviolet radiation;
- acute inflammatory processes;
- diseases of the upper respiratory tract, proceeding in chronic form;
- surgical interventions in the nasopharyngeal area;
- traumatic injuries;
- disturbances of processes of hormonal production;
- burns to nasal tissue.
How does the pathology manifest itself?
Atresia khohan manifests itself with the following characteristic clinical features:
- obstructed processes of nasal breathing( until its complete absence);
- abundant mucous nasal discharge;
- is a specific nasal in the voice;
- noisy breathing, with characteristic whistle;
- impairment of the olfactory function;
- loss of taste sensitivity;
In the case of congenital atresia, the khohan has problems with infant feeding, since the baby can give up breast!
Note: complete and bilateral atresia has more pronounced symptomatology, compared with partial and unilateral forms of development of this pathological process.
In adult patients, large mucous lumps often form in the nasal cavity, which may fall out during head inclinations.
In children, this disease requires compulsory treatment, because otherwise it threatens with the development of hypoxia and disruptions in normal child development processes! These babies incorrectly form the facial skeleton, the dentition erupts, there are clear signs of mental retardation.
Diagnosis of atresia of the khohan begins with examination of the patient by an otolaryngologist, examination of the symptoms and the collected history.
In order to establish an accurate diagnosis, determine the form and variety of the pathological process, the following types of diagnostic studies are assigned to patients :
- endoscopic examination of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses;
- Radiographic examination of the skull;
- magnetic resonance and computed tomography of the nasal cavity;
- probing of nasal passages( conducted to accurately identify the zone of adhesion of the khans).
Based on the results of the complex diagnostics the doctor puts the patient on an accurate, definitive diagnosis and is determined with the optimal treatment methods that are most effective in a specific clinical case!
How to treat?
Treatment of atresia of the koan is performed exclusively by surgical methods.
Important! With the congenital form of the pathological process, due to threats to the life of the newborn, the operation is usually carried out urgently !
Toddlers in the area of fusion, the koan surgeons do a so-called trocar puncture, followed by the establishment of a catheter, in order to ensure normal respiratory function.This kind of surgery is only temporary!
In the course of surgical intervention, specialists remove tissues that block the patient's nasal lumens and prevent the normal course of respiratory processes of .As a result of the operation, the normal nasal breathing of patients is restored, as well as the patency of his nasal passages.
Operation for atresia of the khoan
The surgical techniques used by specialists to control a disease such as atresia of the khohan depend on the type of tissue that fuses the patient's air passages of the .In the event that the choana splice with bone tissue, a surgical procedure is performed with a cut in the palatal region.In other clinical situations, less traumatic methods may be used and surgery performed without cuts, through the nostrils of the patient.
Important! During the operation, the surgeon implements the installation of special nasal stents, artificially forming lumens in the area of the khohan.After a while these stents are to be removed.
Physicians in the treatment of atresia of the khohan prefer non-invasive endoscopic methods that are considered to be the safest even for the youngest patients and characterized by an accelerated recovery period.
Surgical treatment of atresia of the khohan requires hospitalization of the patient and constant monitoring by specialists.The surgical intervention itself is carried out under the influence of general anesthesia.
To avoid possible scarring, which often causes a relapse of the disease, after excision of excess tissue on the resulting wound surface, a tissue flap is taken from the front part, which is sewn with special surgical sutures.
Surgical intervention aimed at treating atresia of the khoan can trigger the development of the following extremely undesirable complications in the patient :
- nasal bleeding;
- inflammatory processes;
- connection of infectious processes;
- recurrence of the disease with concomitant re-overgrowing of the hoan gleams;
- increased body temperature;
- febrile state;
- pain syndrome.
Important! If any worrisome symptoms occur after a surgical procedure for atresia of the khoan, it is necessary to urgently seek help and advice from an specialist!
When the nasal passages are re-infected with connective tissue structures, another surgical operation is performed. It is possible to prevent the development of the above complications by choosing a good clinic for the operation, as well as strictly observing all the medical recommendations concerning the post-operation period!
The patient remains in the clinic for the first few days after the surgical intervention under the supervision of specialists.In the absence of characteristic postoperative complications, is prescribed for 2-3 days of the patient.
The average duration of the recovery period after surgical treatment of atresia of the khoan ranges from 1.5 to 2 months.During this period, the patient should regularly visit an otolaryngologist to monitor the dynamics of the recovery process.
During rehabilitation, special attention should be paid to the hygiene of the nasal cavity. It is necessary to wash the nose, clear it of accumulated secretions with the help of a nasal aspirator, and also treat the nasal cavity with an adrenaline solution.
To eliminate such painful symptoms as swelling and painful sensations characteristic of the first stages of rehabilitation, the doctor can recommend vasoconstrictive, analgesic and anti-inflammatory medications.
In case of joining of infectious processes, the patient is prescribed a course of antibacterial therapy, antipyretic drugs.
Please note: antibiotic preparations are selected by a specialist strictly individually, the same applies to the dosage of medicines, as well as the duration of the therapeutic course.
To ensure that the recovery period after a surgical procedure aimed at treating atresia of the khohan is as quick and successful as possible, the following recommendations should be observed:
- Refuse from smoking and drinking alcoholic beverages.
- Avoid supercooling of the body.
- Refrain from visiting the sauna or sauna.
- Avoid playing sports and overly intense physical exertion.
- Give preference to liquid and soft food at room temperature.
- To take vitamin-mineral complexes and immunomodulating drugs, to activate the natural defense mechanisms of the body.
To prevent the development of a pathology such as atresia of the khohan, patients are advised to observe the following rules:
- to lead a healthy lifestyle;
- is balanced and rational to eat;
- to avoid traumatic injuries to the face and nasal tissues;
- regularly visit the therapist for a therapeutic examination.
Pregnant women need to pay special attention to their health to prevent the onset of a baby with congenital atresia of the khohan.
For this expectant mother it is recommended:
- To plan pregnancy, timely treating all diseases before conception.
- Take vitamin and mineral complexes for pregnant women.
- Refuse from smoking and drinking alcohol.
- Do not take any medications without a doctor.
Adhering to such simple rules, you can avoid the occurrence of atresia of the khoan.
Chumachenko Olga, medical reviewer