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Laryngitis: Symptoms and Treatment

312.970 The term "laryngitis" refers to the inflammation of the mucous membranes of the larynx, which can develop under the influence of various predisposing factors and against other diseases.Laryngitis is a disease that is diagnosed in both adults and children.The course of this disease depends on a number of conditions( age, resistance, adequacy of therapy, etc.).

Table of contents: Classification Etiology Laryngitis: symptoms of the disease Signs of chronic laryngitis Diagnosis How to treat laryngitis?

Classification

According to the generally accepted classification, all laryngitis are classified as:

  • acute( including allergic and infectious);
  • chronic( catarrhal species, laryngitis with severe hypertrophic or atrophic processes).

There are also secondary diphtheria, tuberculosis and syphilitic laryngitis.

Note : Toxic influenza can be an impetus to the formation of hemorrhagic laryngitis, which is characterized by specific hemorrhages in the tissues of the ligamentous apparatus and mucous membranes.

Etiology

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Laryngitis can develop as a result of increased growth and reproduction of normal microflora on the background of a weakening of the body's defenses. Factors that reduce resistance are:

  • supercooling;
  • overvoltage of the vocal cords;
  • breathing through the mouth;
  • permanent exposure to contaminated air;
  • smoking;
  • addiction to alcoholism.

In some cases, allergies to food or insect bites lead to acute laryngitis.Allergic reaction often causes considerable puffiness of the larynx and narrowing of its lumen, which not only disturbs breathing, but can also cause it to stop.

Note : Children of younger age group are more likely to be allergic to laryngitis.

The disease provokes inflammation of the nasopharynx, arising against the background of influenza, ARVI, adenovirus infection, scarlet fever, whooping cough and measles. Factors predisposing to the development of a chronic form of laryngitis:

  • recurrent acute laryngitis;
  • inadequate acute therapy;
  • occupational hazards( inhalation of contaminated air);
  • chronic rhinitis;
  • inflammation of palatine tonsils( tonsillitis);
  • pharyngitis inflammation( pharyngitis);
  • congestion in the upper respiratory tract( on the background of pathologies of the heart and lungs);
  • disorders in the metabolism of carbohydrates;
  • smoking.

Important : laryngitis in children is often diagnosed after repair in an apartment or installation in a room of new furniture.Many paint and varnish materials provoke irritation and inflammation of the soft tissues of the larynx.Acute and chronic laryngitis can also be a consequence of gastroesophageal reflux, i.e., a systematic casting of acidic stomach contents into the esophagus and larynx, and also by aspiration with small foreign objects.

Predisposing factor are permanent foci of infection in diseases of the oral cavity.

Laryngitis: symptoms of the disease

Most often, the acute form of laryngitis is manifested by the following symptoms of :

  • dryness in the oral cavity;
  • with a feeling of sadness or "scratching" in the throat;
  • considerable ospolnostyu voices( often - its loss);
  • cough( initially cough dry, then - with phlegm);
  • subfebrilitet - a slight increase in temperature( often the temperature does not increase).

Important: The acute condition is characterized by deterioration of the general condition and the presence of signs of general intoxication of the body.

Children( mainly from 2 to 5 years old) may experience acute lining lagitis, also known as "false cereal".With it, the mucous membrane is inflamed under the vocal cords.This form is characterized by a sharp beginning.The first symptoms are wheezing and a "barking" cough( usually at night).

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With false croup, breathing becomes difficult, dyspnea increases.Disturbance of breathing with false croup is due to swelling of the mucous areas( they take the form of ridges narrowing the laryngeal lumen).Lack of oxygen during an attack is manifested by blue lips and nails.The duration of an acute attack can be from 2-3 to 30 or more minutes, and then in most cases, breathing comes back to normal.

The next morning after a night attack the child feels almost normal, can only be noted a change in voice( hoarseness).If adequate therapeutic measures are not taken in a timely manner, episodes can be repeated at regular intervals( 2-3 days to 1-2 weeks).With an early and adequately administered treatment, the prognosis for acute laryngitis is usually good.

The disease lasts for one to two weeks.Chronization of the process is not excluded.Laryngitis in children is more severe due to imperfections in the immune system.

Symptoms of chronic laryngitis

Typical, often recurring symptoms of chronic form:

  • hoarse voice;
  • severe sore throat;
  • cough;
  • swelling and hyperemia of the mucosa.

You will receive more information about this disease and symptoms of laryngitis by viewing this video:

Diagnosis

Diagnosis is based on a characteristic clinical picture, patient complaints and examination data.In some cases, instrumental studies using the laryngoscope are required to clarify.

Laringit

During the examination, the doctor pays attention to the pronounced reddening of the mucous membranes, which is aggravated closer to the vocal cords.There may also be spotted hemorrhages( typical for prolonged and complicated influenza).Chronic catarrhal laryngitis manifests itself as a vast reddening and thickening of the walls of the laryngeal mucosa.The vocal cords are not completely closed, they can often observe a lot of viscous mucus.

For the hypertrophic form, only mucosal edema is present, but also the proliferation of submucosal layer.

With atrophic laryngitis, the mucous membranes are dry and thinned.This is due to the loss of a significant portion of the glands producing mucus.The remaining glands produce a viscous secret that dries quickly, forming crusts.

When performing a general analysis of peripheral blood, leukocytosis and an increase in the rate of erythrocyte sedimentation are detected.In adults, laryngitis should be differentiated from erythematous syphilitic lesions, tuberculosis in the initial stage, erysipelas and laryngeal neoplasms( benign or cancerous).9227-img_1

False groats( lumbar lining) in children must be differentiated from the true croup - diphtheria.In diphtheria, suffocation does not occur suddenly, but gradually develops, accompanied by a significant rise in temperature and an increase in regional lymph nodes.How to distinguish laryngitis from diphtheria and how can these diseases occur in children?These and other questions of the parents are answered by the pediatrician, Dr. Komarovsky:

Recommended reading:

How to treat laryngitis?

Treatment of laryngitis requires a sparing regimen( patient requires rest) and elimination of factors, the effect of which can increase inflammation( refusal to smoke, hot, cold and hot food).

Medical treatment of laryngitis

02912311 The choice of treatment tactics for laryngitis is determined by the form of the disease, as well as the severity of the course of the process and the age of the patient.The patients are shown anti-inflammatory and antibacterial agents.

The best effect can be achieved with the use of these drugs in the form of sprays.Multiplicity of use during the day, as well as the duration of the course treatment - at the discretion of the attending physician.Inhalation with laryngitis is recommended to do with antibiotic drugs.

Antibacterial drugs of penicillin series, as well as antibiotics of a wide spectrum of action, related to cephalosporins are considered to be the most effective.10 To treat the catarrhal form of chronic laryngitis, inhalations are done with oily or alkaline solutions. Treatment of atrophic laryngitis in adults requires treatment of the mucosa using aerosol formulations that contain chymotrypsin.

With dry cough for liquefaction of mucus mucolytics are shown, and as an expectorant are recommended preparations of thermopsis, althaea and various breast doses, as well as funds with bromhexine.

In the treatment of lumbar lining in children, mucolytics are prescribed, diluting the secret and facilitating its departure.If the attack with a false croup can not be stopped independently, then you need to call an emergency team.In a hospital using a laryngoscope, local treatment of the affected area with vasoconstrictive drugs is performed.Can be administered antihistamines and hormones.Often children need oxygen therapy.

Laryngitis: home treatment

A good therapeutic effect is achieved by warming compresses( for example, vodka).If the mucosa has crusts, to soften them, you can carefully pour in the larynx small amounts( 1 g) of vegetable oil( sea buckthorn or peach).Procedures should be carried out daily for 1-1.5 weeks.

For the treatment of laryngitis at home, gargle rinse with broths of bilberries, beet juice and a solution of home-made apple cider vinegar are great.With false croup, the baby shows hot foot baths( the duration of the procedure is 3-5 minutes).

Children need a generous warm drink.You can put compresses on the neck area.In the child's room you need to ensure the influx of fresh moistened air.For reflex relief of the attack of choking, it is recommended to take a clean spatula( or spoon) and touch the instrument to the back wall of the baby's pharynx.Several tips on the treatment of laryngitis folk remedies are presented in the video review:

Possible complications of laryngitis

Acute laryngitis can go into a chronic form.Inflammatory process thus extends further and affects the trachea( in this case we are talking about laryngotracheitis).In hypertrophic form, the characteristic changes( thickening and proliferation) of the soft tissues of the larynx are usually considered as a precancerous condition.To avoid degeneration, the affected tissue must be excised.

Sometimes in clinical practice there are such forms of the disease as phlegmonous laryngitis and laryngeal abscess.With phlegmonous form, there is an infiltrative purulent inflammation affecting the submucosa and, in some cases, ligaments and muscles of the larynx.Pathology can be the result of a trauma or infection.

Phlegmonous laryngitis is manifested by severe pain during the act of swallowing and difficulty breathing( possibly asphyxiation).When examined, areas of necrotic tissue can be identified.Patients are shown massive antibiotic therapy.If an abscess is found, the cavity is opened and drained.Stenosis is an indication for tracheotomy.

Among the possible complications include phlegmon neck, sepsis( blood infection) and abscessed pneumonia.With adequately conducted complex treatment, the prognosis is quite favorable.Abscess of the larynx can develop as a result of a mucosal injury and infecting the wound, or it may appear as a complication of phlegmonous laryngitis.The characteristic localization of purulent inflammation is the lingual region of the epiglottis.The patient has a sharp pain while swallowing;After 2-3 days, edema develops, which is accompanied by a change in the voice and difficulty in breathing.The patient is prescribed anti-inflammatory drugs, and if the conservative therapy is ineffective, an abscess is to be opened and drained.After surgery, inhalations with antibiotics are indicated.

Prevention of laryngitis in adults and children

To prevent the development of laryngitis, it is necessary to treat inflammatory diseases( tonsillitis, sinusitis, etc.) in a timely manner.Of great importance is timely sanation of foci of infection and general strengthening of the organism( hardening).With reduced immunity should take multivitamin complexes, as well as funds from the group of immunomodulators.Video:

Konev Alexander Sergeevich, the therapist


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