Tracheitis - symptoms, forms, diagnosis and treatment of children and adults
Jun 01, 2018
Tracheitis is an inflammatory process that takes place on the mucous membrane of the trachea.Most often the diagnosis of tracheitis is completed by the identification of concomitant diseases - rhinitis, laryngitis or pharyngitis.The disease is inherent in all categories of patients - children and adults, female and male sex.Table of contents: Types of tracheitis Causes of the development of the disease Clinical picture How tracheitis is diagnosed Tracheitis treatment
Tracheitis can develop only in two forms:
- Acute - inflammatory process proceeds quickly, responds well to treatmentProperly selected therapy does not cause complications, and full recovery comes in 3 weeks;
- chronic is always a consequence of untreated acute tracheitis, there is a prolonged course( sometimes lifelong) with periods of remission and exacerbation.
In its turn, the chronic view of the inflammatory process under consideration is divided into two subspecies :
- atrophic - the mucosa of the trachea becomes thinner, acquires a shiny and smooth character, and on its surface form small dry crusts that cause excruciating dry andA painful cough;
- hypertrophic - mucous, on the contrary, thickens, it forms a large amount of mucus and sputum, vessels widen.
Causes of the development of the disease
The main and only cause of the onset of the inflammatory process on the mucosa of the trachea is an infection - it is almost always viral, but in rare cases, doctors distinguish bacterial etiology. Not always the presence of infection in the body leads to the development of tracheitis - for this it is necessary that some factors "work":
- regular inhalation of too cold or too hot air;
- frequent hypothermia;
- frequent inhalation of toxic substances - this may be due to special working conditions;
- chronic respiratory disease;
- inflammatory diseases in the nasal cavity and nasopharynx;
- dysfunction of the cardiovascular system.
Symptoms of tracheitis are not always unambiguous and, as a rule, develop "incrementally". The first cough always appears - it has distinctive features for the particular inflammatory process:
- often occurs at night or early in the morning;
- becomes more intense with laughter, crying or loud conversation, sudden inhalation of cold / hot air;
- is accompanied by pain in the chest and larynx, with a pulse.
With a cough the temperature of the body begins to rise - it never reaches critical levels with tracheitis, it usually keeps at the subfebrile level( 37-38 degrees).1-2 days after the onset of the disease, sputum begins to form in the trachea and after each coughing attack the patient marks its appearance.
Important : as soon as sputum appears, you can expect a decrease in the intensity of the pain syndrome with cough and stabilize body temperature.
It should be noted that tracheitis may be accompanied by hoarseness, but only if the inflammatory process in the larynx has joined the disease in question.If the inflammation progresses and spreads through the respiratory tract, then one can expect the development of tracheobronchitis - it always proceeds much more heavily than a simple tracheitis.For example, tracheobronchitis is characterized by a sharp increase in body temperature to high levels, cough becomes permanent, always accompanied by a strong pain syndrome in the chest.
How is the tracheitis diagnosed
Despite the pronounced symptoms of tracheitis, the diagnosis should be made by a specialist - this will allow to appoint competent and effective treatment. The doctor makes the final diagnosis based on the following data:
- symptoms - it refers to the patient's complaints of cough, sore throat and chest pain, slight fever, general weakness, hoarseness, and so on;
- medical history - a specialist finds out how long an unhealthy condition lasts, when the first manifestations of tracheitis began and with what they can be related( for example, the patient can clarify the fact of hypothermia);
- general examination of the patient - when listening to the lungs with a phonendoscope, a specialist will reveal dry wheezes, hard breathing, and in some cases wet rales.A laryngoscope can also be used - a special optical medical instrument that allows one to study the condition of the larynx mucosa;
- general blood test - it can be normal, without visible changes, but it can also indicate the presence of an inflammatory process in the body: increase in the level of leukocytes, acceleration of the rate of erythrocyte sedimentation( ESR).
Tracheitis is usually diagnosed quickly, but in some cases( for example, if the patient has sought medical help late, when the disease is actively progressing), an additional examination may be necessary. To this are the procedures:
- chest X-ray - thus doctors exclude pneumonia;
- spirography - assesses the patency of the airways and eliminates chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or bronchial asthma;
- laboratory sputum examination - this procedure is necessary to identify the causative agent of the disease, if it is supposed to prescribe antibacterial drugs( antibiotics).
If the doctor-therapist discovers some inconsistencies in the patient's condition and the classical description of tracheitis, then a consultation of a pulmonologist-specialist who works with respiratory diseases-is needed.
Treatment of tracheitis
Therapy, aimed at the complete disposal of tracheitis, implies complex measures.Medicines should be prescribed only by a doctor - the inflammatory disease in question can be cured without taking antibacterial drugs( antibiotics), but if a purulent sputum, excessive body temperature or too intense cough is detected during the examination, then this can not be done without such preparations.
In the case of tracheitis, it is advisable to perform inhalation procedures with antibiotics, if possible, using a nebulizer.In this case, the effects of medications will be localized, exactly in the area of mucosal lesions.
As a rule, when diagnosing tracheitis, the following drug groups are appointed:
- antiviral drugs;
- mucolytics are medicines that promote the sputum liquefaction and ensure its simple separation;
- inhalation with alkaline solutions - they will help to quickly reduce the manifestations of the inflammatory process and will improve the sputum discharge.
Please note: should be prescribed only by a doctor, because of the strict adherence to the rules for the combination of medications with tracheitis.For example, antitussive and mucolytic drugs should never be taken concurrently.The fact is that the first will remove coughing attacks, the second will provide sputum liquefaction, which will accumulate in the trachea and other organs of the respiratory system.
If it is necessary to carry out treatment of chronic tracheitis, then all the above medicines and immunomodulators are appointed during remission, which will ensure strengthening and increasing immunity of the patient.
Traditional methods of tracheitis treatment
Tracheitis can be successfully treated with folk methods. The most effective are:Mustard foot bath.
- Mustard foot bath.To do this, simply pour dry mustard( in powder) into socks and put them on their feet.
- Infusion from the blackberry.To make it, use and berries, and the leaves of this plant - 2 tablespoons pour 200 ml of boiling water, insist for 15 minutes and eat like tea at least 4 times a day.
- Propolis.It is meant to use it for home inhalations - 40 g of wax and 60 g of propolis are placed in aluminum dishes, placed in a water bath and warmed up well.Then over the dishes with a mixture of propolis and wax you need to breathe, covered with a blanket or a towel.The procedure time is 10 minutes, the number of procedures is 2 times a day until the symptoms disappear.
- Herbal collection.Collect a collection of thyme / mint / fennel seeds( each of 10 g), plantain / licorice root( each of 15 g), sweet clover( 5 g) and coltsfoot( 20 g).The resulting dry mixture pour steep boiling water in an amount of 800 ml, insist 60 minutes.Take infusion is necessary for 200 ml with the addition of honey( an arbitrary amount) 3-4 times a day.
Chronic tracheitis can be successfully treated( enter into a prolonged remission) following folk methods:
- 500 ml of milk boil and add a tablespoon of pine buds, cool and strain.Take the broth during the day in small portions, the duration of treatment - until the symptoms disappear completely;
- is mixed in a tablespoon of honey, dried mustard, flour and sunflower oil( any), add a tablespoon of vodka to the mass, heat everything in a water bath and apply a compress on the upper part of the chest.Make such compresses every day, at night and do not stop until the intensity of symptoms is less;
- boil potatoes "in uniforms", crush it directly into the skin and make a compress on the top of the chest.
Heat compressions and warming should never be done at high body temperature - wait for it to stabilize.If there is an allergy, consult your doctor about the use of medicinal herbs and propolis to treat tracheitis.
General recommendations for the treatment of tracheitis with folk remedies are presented in the video:
General recommendations of
In order to facilitate the patient's condition and relieve him of unpleasant tracheitis symptoms, one should heed some recommendations from specialists:
- Be sure to provide the patient with a plentiful drink - it can be tea with raspberries or kalina, mint broth or soothing tea with melissa and oregano;
- food in the period of illness should be rational, diverse and fortified - fruits and vegetables must be present in the daily menu;
- if coughing with tracheitis provokes an external stimulus( this may be dust or smoke), then it is necessary to get rid of it;
- to give up smoking at least for the period of tracheitis treatment;
- always take a course of physiotherapy procedures( for example, calcium electrophoresis).
Tracheitis in children
In childhood, the tracheitis is diagnosed quite often, but poses no danger to the life of a small patient.The course of the disease in childhood differs little from the above described clinical picture, but it should be noted that with weakened immunity, a significant increase in body temperature, up to critical levels, is possible.
Treatment of tracheitis in children usually occurs without the use of antibacterial drugs. In general, in the absence of a complex course of the inflammatory disease under consideration, the treatment of children is at home, folk methods can be used:
- inhalation with eucalyptus;
- mustard warming of the feet;
- compresses with boiled potatoes "in a uniform"( the recipe is slightly higher).
Important: if the trachea has developed in the infant, then urgent measures should be taken to get rid of the symptoms of the disease and this can help cough syrups, inhalations with essential oils, plentiful drink( tea, herbal preparations).Begin to make compresses and use dry mustard in the treatment of tracheitis in children can only be from 3 years.
The pediatrician, doctor Komarovsky, tells about cough treatment in children:
Possible complications of tracheitis
If the inflammatory disease under consideration proceeds without proper treatment, then its acute form can develop into a chronic one, which, by the way, occurs very often.Complication may be the spread of the inflammatory process to other organs of the respiratory system - tracheobronchitis.
Important: if after a full treatment of the disease in question, dry cough persists for 3-4 weeks, then it is not a complication to consider this phenomenon - doctors say that this is the norm.
Tracheitis is not a dangerous disease for human life, but its unpleasant symptoms can permanently disrupt the habitual rhythm of its life.For example, because of a night dry cough, the patient suffers from insomnia, which leads to chronic fatigue, irritation and even nervous breakdown / depression.Therefore, the treatment of the inflammatory process on the mucosa of the trachea should be under the supervision of specialists and with the principle of complex therapy.In this case, the forecasts are always favorable.
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapeutist of the highest qualification category.