Eczema: causes, symptoms, stages and treatment
Eczema is an acute, somewhat less common chronic relapsing skin disease characterized by polymorphism of the rashes.Its name derives from the Greek "eczeo", which means "boil".Such an analogy has arisen because in the course of a disease eczematous vesicles quickly burst like bubbles of boiling water.Eczema is a fairly common disease, in the structure of the entire skin incidence its proportion is approximately 35-40%.Table of contents:
Causes of eczema
Eczema is a polyethological disease.It is considered that eczema is provoked by a complex effect of neuroallergic, endocrine, metabolic, and also external factors. In general, the following causes of eczema are identified:
- Genetic predisposition;
- Endocrine diseases( pathology of the thyroid gland, adrenal glands);
- Diseases of the digestive tract;
- Stress, depression;
- Professional factors( exposure to chromium, formaldehyde, nickel);
- Household irritants( detergents, cosmetics);
- Poor blood supply to the legs with varicose veins;
- Violation of the integrity of the skin( abrasions, wounds).
Types of Eczema
A single classification of eczema does not exist. However, clinical as well as pathogenetic features of the disease make it possible to isolate the most common forms of eczema:
- True eczema:
- Microbial eczema:
- Varicose veins;
- Eczema nipple.
- Seborrheic eczema;
- Occupational eczema;
- Children's eczema.
Symptoms of the disease
The basis for the appearance of eczema is hypersensitivity of the delayed type.However, with aggressive exposure to chemical or drug substances, the disease develops as an immediate type of hypersensitivity, when symptoms occur soon after exposure to an irritating factor.Regardless of the mechanism of development, eczema proceeds with characteristic features.
The first manifestation of the disease is the redness of the skin area.On the surface of the affected skin, small bubbles soon appear.In the center of the eczematous focus, the vesicles are opened, erosions are formed, from which the serous exudate expires.So on the skin there are areas of wetness, and when the exudate dries up, crusts form.In the future, the crust disappears, the skin begins to peel off.Then depigmented spots appear on this area, which soon disappear.
Bubbles on the skin may cause papules and pustules.A very characteristic feature of eczema is the alternation of affected eczematous skin areas with unchanged.The rashes are symmetrical, appear on the face, limbs, and also the trunk.The pathological process is accompanied by a very pronounced itch, which greatly disturbs the person.
Refers to a variety of true eczema.This form of the disease is characterized by the appearance of small papules and vesicles on a compacted base, which do not burst and do not form erosive surfaces.
Eruptions often occur on the face, extensor and flexion surfaces of the extremities, in the groin area.The disease proceeds chronically.
As a result of a long course of the pathological process, permanent scratching, the skin on the affected areas coarsens, becomes drier, rough.
Itching acquires a paroxysmal character, reaching a pronounced intensity, even preventing a person from sleeping.The disease often exacerbates in the summer and subsides in winter.
This form of the disease, like the previous one, also refers to the manifestation of true eczema.The disease is characterized by the appearance of small dense vesicles on the lateral surfaces of the fingers, less often on the skin of the foot and palms.Vesicles are capable of opening, forming erosion or drying out, forming yellowish crusts.Further on the skin there are sharply delineated lesions with marked inflammatory symptoms.This form of the disease is also accompanied by severe itching.
This form of the disease is characterized by the appearance of hyperkeratosis( thickening of the epidermis) on the skin of the palms and feet.The appearance of eczematous vesicles is not typical, instead, multiple corns are formed on the skin, and then cracks.Disease entails not only aesthetic, but also physical problems.Cracks on the soles of the feet and hands are painful, which makes it difficult for the patient to move around, do something with his hands.
Microbial eczema often occurs along the periphery of trophic ulcers of the shin, in the areas of the postoperative stump, in the area of wounds and abrasions.That is why microbial eczema is often called a wound.
Microbial eczema usually occurs in the region of the shins, the back surface of the hands.In the lesions, the skin reddens, bubbles, pustules and papules appear on its surface.When the vesicles are opened, erosion occurs, greenish-yellow, and sometimes bloody crusts.Foci of defeat have clear boundaries, often curved.
Several varieties of microbial eczema are distinguished:
- Varicose veins;
- Eczema nipple.
For numeral eczema, the appearance of several rounded lesions above the skin, a diameter of one to two centimeters, is typical.The skin in the lesion is edematic, red, there are vesicles, papules and crusts.Pathological foci often occur on the upper and lower extremities, the inflammatory process is prone to spread.This form of eczema is very resistant to treatment and is prone to relapse.
Intertriginoznaya eczema occurs in large skin folds: inguinal, axillary.
Varicose eczema occurs, as you might guess by name, against a background of varicose veins.Foci of lesion are formed in the area of dilated veins on the legs and have clear boundaries.On a red background there are many skin elements: vesicles, papules, pustules, crusts.
Sycosiform eczema occurs in people suffering from sycosis.On inflamed edematic areas of the skin there are pustules, permeated with hair, as well as vesicles bursting with the formation of erosion.The pathological process occurs in the area of the beard, upper lip, pubis, armpits.
Mycotic eczema develops against the background of skin lesions by a fungal infection and is observed in mycosis, ringworm, candidiasis.In this case, in addition to the typical signs of eczema, the signs of the main mycotic process are noted on the affected skin.
Nipple eczema often occurs in lactating women as a result of a trauma caused by feeding a baby.The disease is characterized by the appearance in the area of the nipples of foci of bright red color, covered with crusts and scales, accompanied by wetting and the appearance of cracks.
Foci of lesions appear in the face, the behind-eye area, the chest, between the shoulder blades, and also on the scalp.The appearance of vesicles and wetness in patients with this form of the disease is very rare.Seborrheic eczema is characterized by the appearance of reddish spots covered with fatty yellow scales.On the head there are abundant fatty scales, the roots of the hair look greasy and stuck together.Recommended to read:
- Aerosol( hydroxycyclosol, triamcinolone);
- Emulsions, creams and ointments( hydrocortisone, betamethasone, dexamethasone, triamcinolone).
In addition, when the inflammatory phenomena subsided, pastes and creams can be used: ichthyol, tar, sulfuric, tar-naphthalan.
In microbial eczema antibacterial ointments are also used: neomycin, clindamycin, tetracycline.
To accelerate the formation of crusts with further rejection, they designate solutions of aniline dyes: brilliant green, fucarcine, methylene blue.
Treatment of eczema with folk remedies
In addition to the basic treatment, taking into account the clinical picture of the disease and the severity of the process, folk remedies can be used.So, for treatment of an eczema use the broth prepared from a camomile, calendula and a sage.The first two plants should be taken twenty grams, and the sage - ten.Herbs pour into the dishes, pour half a liter of hot water and cover the container.When the broth cools down, moisten the folded gauze several times in it and apply it to the areas of eczema.
An anti-inflammatory and wound-healing effect has a decoction from the bark of oak.It is necessary to pour a glass of crushed oak bark into the pan, pour a liter of water.When the water boils to pour into a saucepan half a cup of yarrow and succession.After fifteen minutes, remove the pan from the fire.When the broth cools down, you need to dip it with gauze, which then is applied to the eczematous areas.
In the summer, you can tear off the mother-and-stepmother's grass, and then grind it in a blender or meat grinder.The resulting gruel should be poured with warm milk and applied to the eczematous areas of the skin, from above apply cellophane and go to bed.After waking, the film can be removed, and the remainder of the gruel can be washed off the skin under warm water.
If the mother-and-stepmother can be obtained only in the summer, then a Kalanchoe, planted in a pot, can be used all year round.You need to rinse the leaf of the Kalanchoe, and then squeeze out the juice from it.In the resulting liquid, dip gauze, and then apply it to the eczematous areas of the skin.
Grigorova Valeria, medical reviewer