Sore throat and its possible causes
Jun 01, 2018
Sore throat, which is worse when swallowed, as well as a feeling of perspiration, "scratching" and dryness in the throat - these are complaints that are often presented by patients at the reception of a district therapist or an otolaryngologist.Such clinical manifestations are inherent in a number of diseases.Before beginning treatment of pain in the throat, it is necessary to establish its cause, and this requires a thorough examination by a specialist.Table of Contents Possible Causes and Risk Factors Differential Diagnosis Treatment of Sore Throat What should I do if my throat hurts during pregnancy?What should I do if my child has a sore throat?
In most cases, the pain is accompanied by other symptoms, including respiratory manifestations( runny nose, cough), as well as an increase in overall body temperature and an increase in regional lymph nodes.
Causes and Risk Factors
Sore throat often accompanies diseases that develop against a weakened immune system.The reason for reducing the defenses of the body may be fatigue, malaise, hypovitaminosis, hormone therapy, chemotherapy of neoplasms, some chronic diseases( diabetes mellitus) and HIV infection.
If you have a sore throat and it's painful to swallow, it is possible that you develop a cold or ARD.These common pathologies are often accompanied by the development of an acute inflammatory process in the mucous membranes of the throat. For the common cold, the following symptoms are typical:
- increase in temperature to 38.5 ° C( usually 2-3 days after a feeling of discomfort in the nasopharynx);
- obstruction of nasal breathing and separation of secretion from nasal passages( runny nose);
- moderate-intensity headache;
- muscle pain( not always).
For ARVI( in particular - the flu), the following are characteristic:
- marked weakness;
- general malaise;
- aches in the bones;
- muscle pain;
- increase in temperature above 38.5 ° C( from the first day of the disease).
Sore throat is often caused by the presence of a chronic foci of infection, in particular, with sinusitis( inflammatory diseases of the paranasal sinuses).Pathogenic microorganisms from the hearth penetrate into the throat, provoking inflammation.Possible causes of pain in the throat may be seasonal or year-round allergic reactions.In such cases, the risk factor is the ingression of allergens into the respiratory tract( pollen, house dust, etc.).
The pain in the throat is often complained by smokers.Inhalation of tobacco combustion products( including - with passive smoking) causes irritation of the mucosa.A serious risk factor is occupational hazards.The symptom often develops with the constant inhalation of air polluted with small mechanical particles and toxic chemical compounds.The throat can hurt with infectious mononucleosis.In this disease of the viral etiology, there are symptoms such as skin rash, splenomegaly( enlarged spleen), an increase in cervical and axillary lymph nodes and a skin rash.Symptom may accompany gonococcal infection( gonorrhea), when the primary focus is located in the throat.In this case, the risk factor is unprotected contact with a sick partner.
Note: one of the possible causes of sore throat is atrophy of the pharyngeal mucosa against a background of B12-deficient anemia.
If the throat hurts and gives into the ear, the following diseases are among the possible causes of the onset of the symptom:
- Otitis.Inflammation of the middle ear is accompanied by high fever, general weakness and decreased appetite.Pain has the property to accrue in the evening.
- Acute pharyngitis.The inflammation of the pharynx is also characterized by the sensation of a foreign body in the throat, perspiration and dry cough.Pharyngitis often accompanies acute respiratory infections.
- Sore throat.This pathology is characterized by inflammation of the tonsils and mucous membranes of the oropharynx.With angina, there is a high fever, pain in the muscles, chills and, often, an unpleasant smell from the mouth, caused by a purulent process.
- Diphtheria.The disease is characterized by puffiness and redness of the tonsils, the appearance of a specific plaque on them, signs of general intoxication of the body and lymphadenitis.If the child has a sore throat and lymph nodes are enlarged, the doctor should be called urgently.Diphtheria is a threat to life.
- Other infectious diseases, more characteristic of childhood.These include scarlet fever, chickenpox( chicken pox) and measles.
Important : if the throat is sore and the voice is gone, the cause may be pharyngitis, laryngitis or tonsillitis, in which the inflammatory process affects the vocal cords.It is also possible that the matter is in the overstrain of the vocal cords( when screaming or loud singing);In this case, the deterioration of general health, as a rule, is not observed. If the throat hurts from one side, the reasons may be as follows:
- the presence of a foreign body or trauma to the mucosa( eg, a fish bone);
- Acute pharyngitis( in the initial stage, pain is often noted only on the right or left);
- anopharyngeal abscess( limited purulent inflammation);
- inflammation of the tonsils( acute tonsillitis);
- neuralgia of the glossopharyngeal nerve;
- Diseases of the teeth and periodontal tissues associated with the formation of the focus of infection and inflammation
- Hilger syndrome( widening of the peripheral branches of the external carotid artery).
Note : in children, unilateral sore throat can accompany the process of teething.In adults this symptom can be noted against the background of a difficult eruption of "wisdom teeth"( ie, third molars). If the throat is sore and there is no temperature, then the following pathologies are not excluded:
- mucosal injury( pain is usually acute, pricking or cutting);
- overstrain of the vocal cords, as well as the muscles of the larynx and pharynx;
- neuralgia of the glossopharyngeal nerve;
- gastroesophageal reflux, i.e., throwing acidic stomach contents into the esophagus;
- development of neoplasm( tumors);
- pathology of the thyroid gland;
- Itzenko-Cushing syndrome( hyperfunction of the adrenal cortex);
- osteochondrosis of the cervical spine;
- varicose veins of the esophagus.
Important: sore throat may be one of the symptoms of developing myocardial infarction or an attack of angina pectoris!
Treatment of a sore throat
If the throat hurts, than it is possible to treat it or him in house conditions?Before proceeding with treatment, it is necessary to consult with your doctor.First of all, visit the district therapist.It is possible that additional consultation of an otolaryngologist, dentist or other specialists will be required.
If the throat is inflamed against a cold or flu, it is recommended to rinse using sage, chamomile, soda, salt and sea salt or hydrogen peroxide( 1 tsp 3% solution per glass of water).A good therapeutic effect allows to achieve infusion of garlic( 3 medium denticles per 200 ml of boiling water) and red beet juice with apple cider vinegar( 1 cup of vinegar per cup of juice).
Important : The ambulance team should be called if the sore throat is so strongly pronounced that it is impossible even to swallow saliva.Call "ambulance" if the swelling is increasing and it becomes difficult to breathe!
What if I have a sore throat during pregnancy?
During pregnancy there is a serious alteration of the body, which can be accompanied by a decrease in overall immunity.As a consequence, the future mother has a higher risk of strep or staphylococcal infection, which is often the cause of sore throat.
Infectious agents can have the most negative impact on the health of the unborn child, so treatment should begin immediately.In any case, when there is pain in the throat, you need to see a doctor, because the causes of the appearance of a symptom may be much more serious than a common cold.In the course of treatment, you can use drugs that are not only effective, but also safe for the fetus. For sore throats during pregnancy, the following therapeutic methods are recommended:
- rinsing the throat with a solution of baking soda or table salt( 1 tablespoon for 500 ml of room temperature water;
- rinsing decoction of medicinal plants( you can use eucalyptus leaves orWild strawberry, as well as chamomile flowers)
- inhalation with soda or chamomile broth( 5-6 times a day until the acute symptoms disappear);
- consumption of double doses of ascorbic acid( vitamin C) to strengthen o
It is advisable to rinse the sore throat hourly on the first day of the disease and at 2-hour intervals on the second and third days after the onset of cold symptoms. Drink more fluids-it is better if it is acidic vitamin drinks or tea with honey and( or) Melissa
What if the child has a sore throat
Notice : a symptom like sore throat is more common in children and adolescents than in adults.In most cases, inflammation is caused by streptococcal infection, which in patients of preschool and primary school age can develop up to 5 or more times a year, depending on the state of immunity.
If your baby has a sore throat, you should definitely consult a pediatrician.In the presence of this symptom, it is extremely important to exclude dangerous viral diseases, such as diphtheria and parotitis( "mumps").In the event that the sore throat in a child is not accompanied by an increase in regional lymph nodes, and the hyperemia( redness) of the mucosa is moderate, it is most likely the viral nature of the disease( SARS).
The main task in the treatment of viral infections should be to suppress the activity of the pathogen.Antiviral drugs are indicated.To prevent complications and stop inflammation, inhalations and rinses with medicinal herbs are recommended.Antibiotics for viral diseases are ineffective;They can be prescribed only with diagnosed bacterial complications.If the child is still small and can not self-gargle, it is advisable to resort to irrigation using antiseptics.
Only the attending physician can prescribe the drugs that are best suited to the child's age and condition.The kid, who has a sore throat, needs a bed rest, at least - in the first days after the onset of the disease.To carry the disease "on its feet" to children is especially dangerous, since the risk of complications is high.
Important: : make sure that the sick child drinks as much liquid as possible - this will help to quickly release his body from toxins and prevent dehydration( dehydration).It is undesirable to give him sour juices, as they can additionally irritate the already inflamed mucous membrane of the throat.Optimum fit kefir, home kissels and herbal teas with sage, chamomile and St. John's wort.
Inflammation in the throat of children often refuse food, because when swallowing pain intensifies.Do not make the baby eat "through strength" - better offer him dishes that do not irritate the throat - mashed potatoes, mashed soups and yoghurts.It is advisable to practice fractional meals, ie, eating small portions, but often 5-6 times a day.
Konev Alexander, physician-therapist