Recently, more and more people are faced with fungal lesions of the ENT organs.This is most often explained by the unsystematic use of antibiotics to treat otitis media.Among the most common fungal diseases is otomycosis.The insidious disease, which in the initial stages is practically asymptomatic, subsequently causes serious complications.Table of contents: General information Reasons Classification Symptoms of otomycosis Diagnosis Traditional medicine in the treatment of ear fungus Prevention of otomycosis
Otomycosis - in Latin for "ear fungus".
This infectious disease of the external auditory canal, which is provoked by several pathogens:
- A. flavus;
- A. fumigates;
- A. terreus;
- A. niger.
According to statistics, the disease affects both children( about 27%) and adults( 18%).In the risk group - residents of regions with a hot humid tropical climate, middle-aged people, in particular those who are engaged in swimming, wear hearing aids, headphones.People who have undergone mastoidotomy are also more susceptible to infection.
Important! In 90% of cases, otomycosis is one-sided, that is, it affects only one ear.
The cause of otomycosis is microscopic fungi, which can often be the inhabitants of the human body.In ordinary life, they do not pose a great danger for him, but when they create favorable conditions they become provocateurs of a serious ailment.
This is not only about the long-term use of antibacterial drugs for the treatment of otitis, but also about the reduction of immunity;
- vitamin deficiency;
- the strongest allergic reactions to food;
- for a long time in a damp, windy or polluted environment;
- work in the cold;
- failure to comply with personal hygiene or hygienic care;
- for hormone therapy;
- availability of AIDS, oncological diseases;
- constant stress;
- the presence of a foreign body in the ear, including a hearing aid;
- bad habits - for example, a constant scratching of the ears, including using matches or spokes.
Please note! Additional factors that provoke the development of otomycosis are: ear washing, mastoidotomy, diabetes mellitus.In addition, the individual features of the organism can also cause the appearance of an ailment, in which a narrowness of the auditory canal or the presence of exostoses - bone formations - is observed in a person.
Depending on the location of the inflammation, doctors distinguish between :
- External otomycosis.It is diagnosed in 50% of cases when people come to the ENT with a feeling of stuffiness and itching in the ear, mistaking them for a sulfur plug or foreign body.The situation is aggravated by the fact that people initially try to extract them on their own, which leads only to further damage to the skin.As a result, there is edema of the external ear and auditory passage, excretion, and in severe cases - noise and acute pain in the ears.In the absence of qualified care, external otomycosis extends to the middle ear and has serious consequences.As a rule, it occurs most often in people with diabetes and leukemia.
- Mycotic otitis media - usually a continuation of the inflammation of the middle ear and is accompanied not only by a strong ear, but also headache, tinnitus up to a hearing impairment.It is diagnosed in 20% of cases.
- Fungal myringitis.The disease develops when the pathogen passes from the skin of the ear canal to the tympanic membrane, as a result of which the mobility of the latter is disturbed, while the patient himself notes the deterioration of the hearing.
- Postoperative.It develops due to surgical intervention, for example, tympanoplasty, mastoidectomy.Such procedures provide for the long-term use in the ear of dressings moistened with antibacterial drugs or special solutions.The situation is aggravated by the erroneous evaluation of the pain syndrome in otomycosis, as a banal consequence of the operation.
According to the clinical picture, otomycosis is divided into 3 stages:
- stage of harbingers, when a person has itching and stuffiness for no apparent reason;
- acute stage, when the above symptoms are added pain syndrome, swelling and discharge;
- chronic - when signs of acute stage then disappear, they reappear.
Symptoms of otomycosis
The forerunner of the medical condition considers the disappearance of the fat film, which protects the skin of the auditory canal.Following this, it is noted:
- sometimes occluding skin glands;
- partial or complete overlapping of the lumen of the auditory canal;
- pronounced hearing loss;
- pain syndrome with swallowing or shaving in men;
- appearance of secretions without a smell of dirty white, yellowish or dirty-green color from the ear, which include cells of the epidermis or mycelium of fungi;
- aches in the body;
- rashes on the skin of allergy sufferers;
- feeling of raspiraniya in the ear;
- pain in the BTE area.
Important! In otomycosis of the external ear, regional lymphadenitis may be added to the inflammatory process.In addition, parotid gland and temporomandibular joint can be affected.
The following diagnostic methods are used to detect otomycosis:
For the presence of otomycosis indicates, first of all, the narrowing of the ear passage, accompanied by swelling and the appearance of excretions with the accumulation of mycelium .Subsequently, these excretions are taken for analysis in the laboratory, thereby establishing the appearance of the fungus and the drugs to which it detects sensitivity.
In addition, doctors can carry out a bacteriological study in which seeding of the material taken for analysis is done and the growth, the number of colonies, the type of pathogen and the drug for the treatment of otomycosis are determined.
Important! Along with general diagnostics, diagnostics of hearing impairments is carried out using audiometry, tuning fork, acoustic impedance measurement.In addition to laboratory diagnosis, doctors often use otoscopy or a microscopy survey - a scan of the tympanic membrane.
There are cases when otomycosis in the discharge from the ear can not detect the mycelium, even though the discomfort does not disappear.This happens when there is a violation of the rules of material intake.Then the doctor can prescribe a trial antifungal therapy, the results of which will allow him to make sure the diagnosis is correct.
Treatment of otomycosis
Treatment of otomycosis requires a lot of time, money and energy.The prognosis is not always favorable, however, with the complex approach the expressed symptomatology ceases to disturb the person.
The treatment of otomycosis goes in several stages, namely:
- setting the exact cause of the disease development - at this stage, doctors are advised to stop taking antibiotics or hormones, to improve immunity, start taking vitamin complexes or antihistamines;
- cleansing the ear, it consists in removing residual sulfur, excretions by washing the ear canal with a warm solution of hydrogen peroxide( 3%) to maximize the penetration of local remedies into the skin;
- use of antifungal solutions( Burov's liquid, Nystatin, Amphotericin);
- use of antifungal drugs( ointments or drops) - Kandibiotic, Terbinafine, Mikozolone, Undecin.
For the treatment of recurrent otomycosis, general antimycotic therapy using ketoconazole, fluconazole or other agents with fungicidal activity is also used.
Important! The success of otomycosis treatment depends not only on competently selected medications, but also on the patient's lifestyle.During this period, he needs to play sports, fully rest( sleep 8 hours a day), avoid stress, eat right.
Most often in the initial stages of treatment of otomycosis the patient is able to take care of himself independently at home.Drops or ointments he initially applies to a wadding of cotton wool, which is then placed in the ear canal.In neglected cases, when the treatment of the affected areas is difficult, the doctor can prescribe to him procedures in the clinic where, with the help of special tools, not only effective cleaning of the skin in hard-to-reach places, but also its treatment with appropriate preparations.
Please note! You can not treat otomycosis with warm compresses and baths, as this only aggravates the situation.
Traditional medicine in the treatment of the fungus of the ears
Doctors do not prohibit the use of traditional medicine for the treatment of otomycosis, but insist on the need for prior consultation before using them.Moreover, such funds can be used exclusively in combination with the prescribed therapeutic therapy .Otherwise complications in the form of sepsis, meningitis, lesions of internal organs, unfortunately can not be avoided.
Important! Prolonged disregard of otomycosis or self-medication can cause death.
For the treatment of otomycosis in the ears, folk healers usually use decoctions, herbal infusions or poultices based on propolis, onions, aloe.To do this:
- clean onion juice is instilled for the night in the ear canal for 5 drops for 7 days;
- a warm decoction of celandine( it can be pre-mixed with broth of bird cherry), dig in a few drops in the affected ear twice a day;
- also to ease the condition in the ear, digest up to 5 drops of aloe three times a day for 7 days.
Prophylaxis of otomycosis
A healthy lifestyle and respect for personal hygiene are the main conditions that make the development of the fungus in the ear canal practically impossible.Meanwhile, if once it has already happened, the disease is likely to take a recurring character.
In this case, repeated infections can be avoided if:
- to resort to antibiotic or hormone therapy only in extreme cases;
- do not use sharp objects to clean the ear canal and in every way prevent the appearance of damages in it;
- harden the body;
- protect ears from water ingress when visiting swimming pools, reservoirs;
- in time to treat any pathology of ENT organs.
Otomycosis is not a verdict, but an insidious disease that is not always completely cured.Meanwhile, she successfully retreats with proper treatment and for a long time does not show herself at all by observing all the recommendations of specialists.
Chumachenko Olga, medical reviewer