Psoriasis: symptoms, treatment and prevention of scaly lichen
Psoriasis, also called squamish: it is a skin disease related to dermatoses - non-inflammatory diseases of the skin.In the general structure of dermatological diseases, psoriasis ranges from 5 to 10%.In recent years, there has been a pronounced upward trend in the incidence of psoriasis.Table of contents: Causes of psoriasis Symptoms of psoriasis Psoriasis in children Treatment of psoriasis
Causes of psoriasis
The disease of psoriasis does not have any one cause - it is based on immune, metabolic and genetic factors.
The leading theory of the origin of psoriasis is genetic.It is assumed that certain "breakages" of genes lead to pathological disorders of metabolic and immune processes.In favor of this theory is the fact of the family course of psoriasis - in 20% of cases, and according to some data in 50%, in psoriatic patients, children also suffer from psoriasis.In some cases, the disease manifests itself in 1-2 generations.Thus, develops the first type of psoriasis , the leading manifestation of which are skin diseases.Suffer from him most often children and young people aged 17-27 years.
According to another theory, psoriasis develops with immune disorders provoked by external factors:
- infectious diseases, including viral;
- improper diet with a predominance of spices, vinegar, extractives in the diet( this fact is confirmed by the fact that attacks of exacerbation of psoriasis are provoked by the use of similar products);
- climatic effects - hypothermia.
Psoriasis of the second type is more likely to be ill at the age of over 40 years.It is characterized not only by skin rashes, but also psoriatic lesions of the joints.
Endocrine diseases, diseases of the digestive system are also considered as factors that can cause psoriasis.
Symptoms of psoriasis
The leading symptom of psoriasis is peeling reddish stains.Psoriatic plaques most often localize the knee and elbow folds, on the back( mostly in the lower part), in the area of skin folds.Quite often there is psoriasis on the head, and in a quarter of patients there is a lesion of the nail plates.
Psoriasis is a chronic relapsing disease.Most often, periods of exacerbation occur in autumn and winter, although spring-summer periods of exacerbation are not excluded.
The clinical picture of the disease is as follows:
- Psoriasis in the initial stage is characterized by the appearance of thickening of the skin in typical places, followed by the formation of typical plaques: pale gray or silvery spots raised above the skin.For psoriasis, unlike eczema, with which it is often confused, it is characteristic the appearance of plaques on the extensor surface of the joints.The dimensions of psoriatic rashes at the initial stage are usually small - from a few millimeters to a centimeter.
- After the initial stage, the stage of progress develops, during which there is an increase in plaques and fusion - their size can reach several centimeters or more.During the exacerbation of psoriasis, the plaques begin to peel off, giving the person discomfort with itching.Exfoliating scales of skin give the stains a typical appearance, because of which psoriasis is called scaly lichen.A typical phenomenon for this stage is the Kebner symptom, which consists in the appearance of psoriatic elements in the places of skin injuries - in place of scratches and scratching.The duration of this stage is from 2-3 weeks to 5-6 months.
- The next stage is stationary.At this time, no new elements appear, and the old ones completely begin to peel off.In the absence of treatment, this stage can again be transformed into a progressive one.
- The stage of resolution or regression is manifested by the gradual disappearance of plaques.Plaques flatten, cease to peel, eventually they can disappear completely, reminding themselves of only the areas of depigmentation.Regression can occur on its own, but the treatment of psoriasis greatly accelerates this process.
In the case of psoriatic nail lesions, the appearance of point depressions and whitish spots on them is noted.Nails thicken and begin to crumble.In 10-15% of patients with psoriasis joints are affected - psoriatic arthritis develops, manifested by inflammation of the joints, pain during movement and restriction of mobility in the joints.Mostly small finger joints are affected, although knee, hip and intervertebral joints can be affected.
Psoriasis in children
The course of this disease in childhood is only slightly different from the clinical picture in adult patients.Children often have psoriasis on their head and skin lesions in the genital area.
Small children may have atypical onset of the disease, which causes erythematous foci with maceration( softening) of the central part and desquamation at the edges( with a typical shape, the center of the plaques is flaky).
Treatment of psoriasis
In the treatment of psoriasis, a step-by-step principle is used: from simpler and safer methods to more complex and potentially dangerous.In the initial stages, an ointment from psoriasis, which contains a hormonal component, may be quite effective.The effect of such ointments is realized due to local immunosuppressive action - suppression of some immune cells responsible for the formation of psoriatic plaques.
In case of insufficient effectiveness of ointments, other means of treatment of psoriasis are used: skin irradiation with ultraviolet rays.Usual UV-therapy and PUVA-therapy are applied, when the patient is irradiated with ultraviolet in combination with the appointment of photosensitizers.This term refers to substances that increase the sensitivity of the skin to ultraviolet light;These drugs can be used in the form of ointments or are administered orally in the form of tablets.
In severe forms of psoriasis and with the inefficiency of the above methods, systemic therapy is prescribed.It consists of injections and psoriasis tablets.
The last word in psoriasis therapy is monoclonal antibodies that affect certain segments of the immune system and prevent the development of the disease.Unfortunately, the use of such drugs is limited by their toxicity.Therefore, they are appointed only in the most neglected cases.Names of drugs from this group: Adalimumab, Infliximab.
Important! These drugs should be prescribed exclusively by a doctor, taking into account the clinical course of the disease, as they can lead to serious toxic complications.
Itching with psoriasis is stopped by antihistamines.
Psoriasis: home treatmentRecommended to read:
Ointments for psoriasis can be used at home - the doctor prescribes the frequency of ointment application.You should only go to the dermatologist regularly to assess the effect of the treatment.It is also possible to use folk remedies for psoriasis.These include non-hormonal ointments: based on naphthalan oil, zinc ointment and others.
To folk remedies for the treatment of psoriasis should be attributed various vegetable broths and chatterboxes, made on the basis of various plants.Examples are the juice of celandine( use cautiously, since burns are possible), ointments based on mallin, peels of walnut broths.People's remedies should be treated with caution and do not neglect official means of treatment!
Psoriasis at home can be cured at the initial stage.With frequent relapses and a serious course of the disease, you should go to the clinic, where there is a possibility of treatment with UV and PUVA therapy.
"Buy nano gel from psoriasis!" - this treatment can often be found on the Internet or on pages of advertising publications.In this appeal, only the super popular word "nano" is used.Information on the effectiveness and composition of nano-gel from psoriasis can not be found, so when buying this product, there is a high risk of running into an inefficient and even dangerous means.
Prevention of psoriasis
Prevention of psoriasis is important.Timely preventive measures can completely prevent the recurrence of the disease, and also shorten the period of recovery if the relapse nevertheless developed.
Attention deserves a diet for psoriasis: in the diet of a sick person should be absent spices, fried and salted foods.Proper nutrition with psoriasis includes a large number of foods with fiber( vegetables and fruits).Fish containing unsaturated fatty acids are also useful in this disease.
In autumn, during an exacerbation, you should enrich the diet with vitamins - you can use complex vitamins or food supplements.
In some hospitals, plasmapheresis is performed to prevent psoriasis - the frequency of relapse after several sessions of plasmapheresis is reduced by 3-5 times.
Ultraviolet irradiation also has a preventive effect, therefore it is recommended that patients take sunbathing.However, you should be careful - in some forms of psoriasis, sunlight can trigger an exacerbation.Therefore, you need to consult a doctor, can you be under the sun's rays.
Detailed information on psoriasis is presented in this video review - people and doctors discuss the problem with
Gudkov Roman, resuscitator