Pediatric dermatitis in children: symptoms and treatment
Periodic inflammation of the skin in the buttocks and inner thighs in infancy is classified as diaper dermatitis.To provoke the development of diaper dermatitis may be increased temperature, inaccuracies in hygienic care, pathogenic microorganisms.More often the disease is manifested in children, especially girls who are on artificial feeding.As a rule, the symptoms of diaper dermatitis disappear completely by the 2nd year.
This disease can develop under the influence of several factors:
- chemical - salts of fatty acids, digestive enzymes, ammonia;
- microbial - microorganisms of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic nature, including the E. coli;
- mechanical - rubbing of delicate skin about a diaper cloth or diaper material;
- physical - high temperature and high humidity.
Causes of diaper dermatitis
The main cause of diaper dermatitis in infants is the non-compliance with hygiene rules - for example, untimely diaper change,Fabric and gauze.
It is worth mentioning separately known fact to doctors - there is a category of children who have some predisposition to the occurrence of diaper dermatitis. This group of small patients includes those children who have:
- violation of water-salt metabolism;
- unstable stool;
- atopic dermatitis;
- high level of ammonia in the urine;
- susceptibility to allergic reactions.
Note: many believe that wearing diapers leads to the appearance of diaper dermatitis, but in fact this theory has not been confirmed by doctors.On the contrary, if parents observe hygiene rules, diapers are changed in a timely manner, then the chance of occurrence of the considered disease is reduced to zero.
Symptoms of diaper dermatitis
According to statistics, the disease most often occurs in girls, the process can be clearly localized( limited area, shallow lesions, small rashes) and quite extensive. The main signs of diaper dermatitis include:
- Redness of the skin.Appears in the area of inguinal folds, buttocks, perineum.Against the background of redness( hyperemia), there may appear blistering rashes and peeling of the skin.
- Purulent formations.Appear just in the zone of hyperemic areas of skin, indicate the neglect of the pathological process.
- Anxiety of the baby.The child experiences quite intense discomfort, so often crying, capricious, his sleep is disturbed, and perhaps a decrease in appetite.
Note: in children who are on artificial feeding often has diaper dermatitis with a clear localization around the anus.This is due to the fact that the feces of these children have an alkaline environment, which is a provocative factor.
If the cause of the development of the disease in question are mechanical factors, reddening of the skin will appear, first of all, in the zone of closest contact with the edges of the diaper .This is the case with an incorrect choice of the size of the diaper - reddening will be located in the inguinal folds, on the lower part of the abdomen and on the gluteal folds.
Diaper dermatitis, which occurs with complications( for example, a fungal infection has joined) will be manifested with bright red areas with whitish ulcers, and localization will occur on the folds of inguinal or gluteal.
Parents should understand in which cases diaper dermatitis requires urgent application for qualified medical care:
- increase in body temperature;
- delay of physical or psychomotor development of the baby against the background of a long-term current diaper dermatitis;
- pustular eruptions are widely spread;
- home treatment effect is absent after 3-5 days of certain procedures.
Principles of treatment of diaper dermatitis
As a rule, treatment of uncomplicated diaper dermatitis is carried out at home.It is always complex and implies compliance with certain recommendations of doctors.
The first thing you need to do for parents is to correctly carry out all hygiene procedures for the baby:
- If the baby has had an emptying of the intestine or bladder, then the diaper needs to be changed.Some will argue, because the famous "diapers" can keep a large amount of liquid inside - should you change them after each emptying of the bladder?No, in this case, you just need to carefully monitor the condition of the "diaper" and not allow its excessive filling.
- Each time you change the diaper, you must carefully wash the crotch, buttocks and thighs of the baby under running warm water using baby soap.Particular attention should be paid to folds - it is in them can remain particles of feces or droplets of urine, which will serve as a provoking factor for the development of diaper dermatitis.
- The use of cosmetics in washing a child should also be literate - for example, pediatricians allow the use of only a special hypoallergenic baby soap.Various gels, foams, liquid soap, even from a series of well-known brands, should be left to a later age of the baby.
- Wipe the skin of the child after washing it is impossible!It should be dried by dipping the desired areas with a soft towel.
- After carrying out hygienic procedures, the affected diaper dermatitis should be lubricated with a special cream( it will be indicated a little later).
Note: if possible, then after each hygiene procedure it is necessary to leave the baby undressed - let him take air baths.In any case, do not immediately wear a baby diaper.
Creams and ointments from film dermatitis
These are creams and ointments.The best option will be the use of ointments / creams, which contain zinc oxide.This substance has a constrictive effect, can reduce the degree of harmful effects of mucus, urine and feces on the delicate skin.Such tools include Desitin .
It is quite appropriate for diaper dermatitis to use antimicrobial ointments - for example, Drapolen , which has antiseptic properties, performs a moisturizing and protective function.But to accelerate the healing process affected by diaper dermatitis skin patches and reduce the level of inflammation will help ointments that contain dexpanthenol - for example, Bepanten( also includes pro-vitamin B5), Panthenol or Pantoderm .
Note : antifungal ointments, as well as preparations with corticosteroids in the composition are prescribed for the disease in question, which is complicated by a fungal infection.But you can not apply them yourself for the treatment of diaper dermatitis in a child - you need to get appointments and recommendations from a pediatrician.
Parents should understand that the cream / ointment and powder should not be used in any case by .The fact is that with this combination on the surface of the skin are formed small lumps - they can severely injure the skin of the baby, which will not only worsen the child's condition, but also to the extensive spread of diaper dermatitis.
Folk remedies for the treatment of diaper dermatitis
Diaper dermatitis - this is just the disease, in the treatment of which you should pay attention to funds from the category of "traditional medicine".Very effective may be a variety of herbs that relieve inflammation and irritation - for example, the bark of an oak, a drug chamomile, a turn, thyme.These herbs are used for baths and appliqués.
To prepare a healing bath, take 2 tablespoons of any of these medicinal plants and pour a glass of boiling water( 200-250 ml).Insisted for 20 minutes, then filtered and poured into the water immediately before bathing the baby.It is not recommended to mix all the medicinal plants at once, it is better to give preference to something one.
And here for the applications you need the prepared infusion( the recipe is the same) to dilute the warm boiled water.Then, gauze napkins( or a piece of soft rags) are moistened in it and applied to the affected areas for 2-5 minutes.It is convenient to carry out this procedure immediately after changing the diaper.
Treatment of diaper dermatitis is always complex - you need to use folk remedies, and use ointments / creams.As a rule, the treatment of the disease in question is never prolonged-literally after 2 days of treatment, improvement of the affected areas of the skin can be noted.
Note: if the child's condition does not improve for 5 days, and diaper dermatitis is steadily spreading, then stop any medical measures and seek qualified medical care.
Prevention of diaper dermatitis
Of course, the pathology in question does not apply to some complex and dangerous diseases - even a neglected form of the disease can be cured within a few days.But diaper dermatitis brings a lot of trouble - and the mood of the baby is always bad, and sleepless nights will surely be.In addition, diaper dermatitis can so deeply affect the skin that the baby has small ulcers - infection is almost inevitable.In general, in any case it is easier to remember and follow preventive measures than then apply efforts for quick treatment.
Prevention of diaper dermatitis consists in following the recommendations:
- It is necessary to refuse powder at all - even with minimal contact with the liquid( urine, sweat), lumps are formed that irritate the delicate skin of the baby.
- You can use a baby cream or ointment with dexpanthenol under the diaper - they will have a protective effect and will prevent the development of diaper dermatitis.
- The baby's diaper needs to be changed at least 8 times a day.
- It is necessary to refuse diapers and gauze diapers.
- When choosing diapers you need to take into account the sex of the baby - these hygiene products have different areas of absorption.
Diaper dermatitis is an unpleasant and even obtrusive problem.But timely detection of the first signs of the disease in question, active healing actions will help to cope with the problem quickly and effectively.But to hope only for home treatment is not necessary, with the slightest deterioration in the state of health or the appearance of some "extraneous" symptoms you need to turn to the pediatrician for accurate diagnosis and medication appointments.
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapeutist of the highest qualification category