Rugged skin in a child: causes and recommendations
In some children, parents notice the appearance of dry and rough skin, and they do not appear everywhere, but only in individual places - on the head, face, behind the ears, on the hands or feet.It is necessary to inform the pediatrician about such changes, he will not only find out the reason for their appearance, but also give recommendations on how to solve the problem.Table of contents: Why the child has dry skin Why is the skin affected with allergy? Prevention of atopic dermatitis Treatment of skin dryness in the child
Why the child has dry skin: possible causes
This phenomenon can occur for a variety of reasons:
- Acne vulgaris in newborns.It is characterized by redness, roughness and small rashes on the skin, which is caused by an excess of hormones in the child's body.As a rule, this phenomenon disappears by one and a half to two months of a child's life, the skin of the baby will be clean and gentle without any treatment.
- Exposure to external factors.Harshness, dry skin of the baby can develop and under the influence of certain factors:
- deficiency of vitamins in the body;
- bathing water is not of adequate quality;
- for bathing a child, medicinal herbs are used that have a drying effect - for example, oak bark, chamomile, string, and others;
- lack of fluid in the body;
- the effect of too dry air( insufficient humidity in the room where the child spends most of the time);
- effect on the skin of the wind and / or frost air( rough and dry foci will appear on the skin of open areas of the body);
- frequent application of shampoo, even if it is intended only for use by young children;
- excessive infatuation with baby powder.
- Some diseases.For certain pathologies, the phenomenon under consideration is a symptom.Such diseases include:
- congenital diabetes mellitus, which will be characterized not only by the appearance of areas of rough and dry foci on the skin, but also high blood glucose levels, and increased appetite, and increased thirst;
- congenital hypothyroidism, which is characterized by a slow metabolism, dry and rough skin in this case will be particularly prominent in the area of the elbow and knee joints.
- Hereditary pathology.It is a question of genetically conditioned roughness, when the phenomenon under consideration begins to appear at the age of up to 6 years, more often in 2-3 years.To similar hereditary pathologies are:
- ichthyosis: as a result of gene mutations the process of keratinization of skin cells is disrupted.In addition to skin manifestations, there will necessarily be violations of the function of internal organs;
- hyperkeratosis: increased thickening, keratinization of the superficial layer of the skin and violation of its rejection.Especially pronounced roughness and dry skin has in the area of feet, hips, elbows and head.
- Cluster invasion.Rarely, but the presence of parasites in the body in a child can provoke the appearance of rough and dry foci on the skin.You can consider this phenomenon as a reaction of the body to the presence of toxins.
- Atopic dermatitis.Most often, this phenomenon occurs just against the background of this disease, which refers to allergic reactions.
The risk of occurrence of this phenomenon in a child increases if, during pregnancy, the mother took hormonal preparations, used vitamins uncontrolled, smoked both during the period of gestation and during lactation.
If the baby is breastfed for a long time, then he will be provided with excellent protection against allergies, but in this case the mother's diet is of great importance, except for roast, spicy dishes and fatty foods.Of great importance is the hereditary predisposition to allergies not only on the maternal line, but also on the paternal.
Allergens for a child can become:
- clothing made of synthetic fabrics;
- food products( including, and adapted milk mixtures, and mother's milk);
- aquarium fish and feed for them;
- washing powder and any hygiene products;
- pet hair;
- tobacco smoke.
If the roughness and dryness of the skin is caused by an allergic reaction of the body, then it can be of a local nature - for example, the phenomenon under consideration takes place behind the ears of the crumb.Often, staphylococcal infection joins affected areas of the skin, resulting in crusts, wetness with an unpleasant odor.
Note: dryness and roughness of the skin behind the ears may not be a pathological phenomenon, but only a violation of the rules of child care.For example, with regurgitation, vomit can flow into the BTE and not be removed on time.
Why is skin allergic affected
What is an allergy?This is the response of the body to a foreign protein, after the signal is received about the foreignness of the protein, an antibody is produced to neutralize it.This is the mechanism of an allergic reaction.It is well known that allergies can be caused by substances that are not a protein, in which case the non-protein allergen substance combines with the patient's blood protein and it is already regarded as alien.
In the child's organism, the enzymatic system is immature and therefore is not able to normally break down some food products, as a result they become allergens.There is another option for the development of the situation: a too large amount of the product enters the baby's body, some of its proteins remain unbroken because of the lack of enzymes.
An alien protein is absorbed into the blood, these substances-allergens can be released from the blood through the kidneys, the lungs and through the skin with sweat.And that's how the skin reacts to them with the appearance of a rash, itching and redness.
Note: is important not to overfeed your baby, do not overload his immature digestive system.
If we talk about atopic dermatitis, then its clinical manifestations depend on the age of the patient.In infants this disease is manifested by dry skin, peeling on the face and scalp, diaper rash even against the background of impeccable care of the baby's skin.If the treatment is performed correctly, then the symptoms of atopic dermatitis are easily stopped, but in the absence of treatment, children are affected by deep layers of the skin, there are vesicles and ulcers, unbearable itching joins.
Atopic dermatitis in children older than one year, as a rule, acquires a protracted course with frequent exacerbations.The pathological process can go to dry or wet eczema, and in the absence of treatment, bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis progress.
Prevention of atopic dermatitis
To avoid the development of the phenomenon under consideration, parents should take care of their health from the first weeks of life. The preventive measures of atopic dermatitis, namely the appearance of dryness and roughness of the skin, include:
- Diet of a nursing mother.It is necessary to exclude from the diet of smoked, canned foods, spices, chocolate, exotic fruits.
- Constant monitoring of temperature and humidity in the room where the child is.The air temperature should be within 18-20 degrees, humidity - not less than 60%.If necessary, it is necessary to use humidifiers.
- The underwear of a child must be sewn only from natural fabrics, children with a history of an allergy should not buy outer clothing made of wool or natural fur.
- To bathe a child using soap, you can not more often than once a week, and the water for this hygienic procedure is better to use cleaned, or boiled and dormant.
- Instead of washing during the day, you can use hygienic wet wipes, only they should not be with flavors and odors.
- If parents constantly use diapers, then during the day the baby needs to hold air baths.
- If there is a genetic predisposition to allergy, then from the life of the baby you need to exclude soft toys, remove carpets from the room and get rid of pets.
- At least twice a day in a room where the child is most of the time, you need to do a wet cleaning, but without the use of disinfectants.
Treatment of skin dryness in a child
Since this phenomenon is most often classified by doctors as atopic dermatitis, this material will treat the treatment of this disease.By the way, it will be quite complex and lengthy.
First of all, you need to adjust and normalize the baby's nutrition.It is understood that it is necessary to exclude the food allergen, if the baby is breastfed, the mother must analyze her own menu and exclude products that theoretically can trigger an outbreak of allergy.
Be sure to pay attention to the work of the intestines of the mother.If she is constantly tormented by constipation, the toxins resulting from the delay of the stool are absorbed into the blood and passed on to the baby with the woman's milk.To combat constipation, the mother can use lactulose, suppositories with glycerin and increase the consumption of fermented milk products.
If the child is on artificial feeding, then you should seek help from a doctor - you may need to change the previously selected mixture for food.
In case of dryness and roughness of the skin after the introduction of complementary foods, parents should stop giving the baby a new product and for two weeks to feed only the usual food.Parents should remember: each new product is introduced as complementary food, the addiction should last at least 3 weeks, which will allow to identify with a high accuracy the true stimulus.
If the child is over the age of one year, then you need to keep a diary of watching the reaction of the body to different foods.It is necessary to exclude from the diet food fish, eggs, citrus fruits, cheeses and strawberries - products that are most likely to cause allergies.In the future, they can be administered, but in minimal quantities.
In addition, remember the following doctor's recommendations:
- Children with rough and dry skin( atopic dermatitis) are categorically contraindicated in sweets, as they increase fermentation in the intestines and improve the absorption of allergens.The use of honey, sweet drinks and jelly leads to a deterioration in health.
- Under the ban for children with this phenomenon are preservatives, stabilizers, emulsifiers and flavor enhancers, exotic fruits.
- A child needs to provide a full volume of drinking, since a lack of fluid in the body leads to constipation.
- It is important not to overfeed the baby.For example, with artificial feeding in the nipple make a small hole, so that the crumb eaten its portion of the mixture for 15 minutes - so he will get pleasure and a feeling of saturation.
- The first lure is vegetable puree.And the most hypoallergenic products are cauliflower and zucchini.
- The air in the children's room should always be fresh, slightly cool and sufficiently moist.Only in this case it will be possible to prevent sweating and dry skin.
- To wash children's clothes you need hypoallergenic phosphate powder, rinse at least 3 times in clean water.If the dryness and roughness of the skin is in a progressing stage, complicated by a bacterial infection, then the rinsing of the laundry will need to be done in boiled water.
- Children's tableware and toys should be washed regularly with hot water.Do this without the use of chemical detergents / cleaning agents.
- The child should walk outdoors daily, moreover, at least 3 hours and in any weather.If you have a walk in frosty days, then the baby's face must be greased with a fat baby cream.
Atopic dermatitis proceeds wavy - periods of exacerbation are followed by periods of remission. But even during periods of "lull" parents must follow certain rules: when bathing a child, you can not use a loofah;
- shampoo and baby soap for bathing can be used no more than once a week;
- skin after bathing and drying should be moistened with baby cream, milk or a special moisturizing lotion;
- to lubricate the baby's skin is needed not only in the areas of peeling and dryness, but all over the body;
- as often as possible, you need to wash your baby face and crotch area, moreover, you can use wet hypoallergenic napkins for this.
Immediately specify: treatment of roughness and dry skin of medicinal products is carried out only under the supervision of a doctor and in strict accordance with its purposes. Medication for atopic dermatitis involves:
- Application of sorbents Smecta, Enterosgel, Sorbogel, which contribute to the removal of toxic substances from the body.If the baby is breastfed, the mother should take the same drugs.
- Application of creams and ointments, which contain glucocorticosteroids, but only for the doctor's prescription.When deep skin lesions use ointments, with superficial - cream.Independently to change a dose or to cancel the given medicinal preparations is categorically forbidden.
Note: hormonal ointments have a swift effect - roughness and dry skin almost immediately disappear, but such medications do not treat the underlying disease.Therefore, ointments / creams with glucocorticosteroids should be used only in combination with other drugs.Otherwise, on the skin in a short time will again appear characteristic lesions.
- Use of lotions that have a moisturizing effect.Many of these drugs have anti-inflammatory effect, so for mild atopic dermatitis, treatment can go without hormonal means.
- The lotion is applied to the baby's skin three times a day - in the morning( after waking and washing), immediately after bathing and just before night sleep.Regular use of moisturizing lotions reduces the frequency of relapses.
- In severe atopic dermatitis, the doctor prescribes calcium preparations( glycerophosphate, calcium gluconate), antihistamines( Diazolin, Zirtek, Cetrin).But here you need to be careful, as one of the side effects of the medications presented is dry skin, so antihistamines are used extremely rarely, only with unbearable itching.
Parents should not be indifferent to the appearance of foci with rough and dry skin.Yes, in most cases this phenomenon does not represent anything serious for health, but in some it is a sign of the development of atopic dermatitis.Treatment of such a disease is always long and difficult, it takes a lot of time and patience from the parents.Otherwise, eczema or bronchial asthma may develop.
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapist of the highest qualification category