How to treat pressure ulcers in a bedridden patient
Jun 03, 2018
Unfortunately, a recumbent patient is not only a 24-hour care, regular procedures, but also the need to monitor his health.And even if the basic disease was managed to stop in its development, it is in no way possible to relax - for bed patients, the formation of decubitus is characteristic.
What is the reason for the formation of bedsores in bedridden patients?First, the patient is constantly in one position - gradually there is a violation of blood circulation in places of constant contact of the body with the bed, the skin begins to atrophy.Secondly, in bedridden patients, both the level of immunity and the regenerative capacity of the organism are significantly reduced, which considerably aggravates the condition of the bedsores that have just formed.Table of contents:
Basic methods for treatment of pressure sores
Bedsores in a lying patient can be formed anywhere, it depends on the position in which the person is most often.For example, if he is forced to lie for a long time on his back, then the lower back, buttocks, the area between the shoulder blades will be affected, and if the lying patient is on his side, the pressure sores will be located only on one side of the trunk.
As soon as the first signs of decubitus appear, you should immediately begin treatment - if you start this process, the process of decomposition of the skin will actively progress, which will lead to necrotic processes, the formation of deep ulcers.
The first thing you need to do is to ensure that the patient's position is such that the places with already formed pressure sores do not touch the bed and clothes.To do this, you can use special anti-decubitus rubber circles - they look like swimming, allow you to maintain body locations with pathological changes on the skin in a "suspended" state.Thus, the absolute dryness of the sick places is provided - this is an indispensable condition for the successful treatment of decubitus.
But all the rest of the treatment with the use of medicines, and with the use of funds from the category "traditional medicine" should be agreed with the attending physician.
The specialist will determine the stage of development of pressure sores:
- 1 stage.The skin in certain places becomes red, if you press this hyperemic area with your finger, then it does not whiten, in some cases there is edema in places of redness.1 stage of decubitus is called superficial and is considered the most accessible for treatment.If you take certain measures at this very moment, you can avoid further development of necrotic processes.
- 2nd stage.Bedsores have not only red color, but also small blisters or sores.At this stage, the main task is to prevent the development of an inflammatory / purulent process.As a rule, regular use of bandages with specific medications gives excellent results - treatment will not be long and difficult.
- 3rd stage.Bedsores are a deep wound, the skin is completely "eaten" by necrotic process, fat and muscle tissues are clearly visible, and the wound can be filled with purulent contents.
- 4th stage.The pathological process actively extends to tendons and even bone tissue, inflammation develops, the wound in each case is filled with pus.Bedsores at the 3rd and 4th stages of development are classified as deep, and doctors believe that only the surgeon can help the patient.Of course, there are a lot of funds from the category of "traditional medicine", which often prove to be quite effective in the fight against pressure sores, but treatment at home can only be done after consulting a doctor.
Treatment of pressure sores by medical products
There are a number of medications that can be used to treat decubitus.But it will be necessary first to establish the stage of development of the pathological condition in question - this will help to make the right choice in favor of one or another medication.
1 stage of pressure sores
At this stage of the necrotic process, the following should be done:
- the affected area of the skin every 2-3 hours to wipe with camphor alcohol;
- several times a day to treat the reddened areas of skin with extract of Sophora Japanese or sea-buckthorn oil;
- Ensure that pressure sores are always dry.
Note: in no case can massage the reddened places on the body, even to treat them with oil or alcohol must be very carefully, with minimal effort.This is due to the fact that there is a very high risk of injuring the thinned, inflamed skin - this immediately leads to infection and development of the inflammatory-purulent process.
2 stage of decubitus
At this stage of development of the pathological process under consideration, it is necessary to use specific medications - unfortunately, one can not do with oil and alcohol.What do doctors recommend:
- several times a day, the wound formed should be treated with an antiseptic solution - chlorhexidine is optimal for this;
- Immediately after the initial treatment, Solcoseryl, Actovegin or Levomecol should be applied to the wound; they are available in the form of ointments, only one preparation should be chosen for treatment;
- periodically apply hydro-gel dressings - for example, Hydrosorb Comfort;
- use applications with substances that have wound-healing properties - for example, Multiferm.
Note: hydrogel dressings and applications with specific substances have a fairly high cost in pharmacy chains, but when used, the duration of treatment of pressure ulcers is significantly reduced.
3 and 4 stage of bedsores
As mentioned above, these steps will require the help of a surgeon - the doctor will necessarily perform the following procedures:
- sanitation of the wound;
- cleansing of the affected area of the body from necrotic masses;
- use of special wound dressings - for example, Protex-TM;
- use of special absorbent spongy bandages( Biaten) - they are used if too much necrotic masses and pus accumulate in the wound.
Only after complete drying of the pressure sore, it will be possible to apply specific medications to the affected areas of the skin.
Treatment of bedsores at home with folk remedies
Since a bed-patient is most often at home, those who care for him need to know the different methods of treating decubitus.Of course, before applying each of them you need to get permission from the attending physician, but all of the means listed below have practically no contraindications.
They have not only a pleasant aroma, but also have antiseptic and healing effects.It is not surprising that some essential oils can be actively used to treat decubitus. Here are the two most effective recipes:
- Mix palmarosa oil with St. John's wort oil in a 1: 2 ratio and make a warm compress on the affected area of the skin.Usually, this bandage is applied at night, and in the morning it is removed, the skin / wound is washed with warm water and thoroughly dried.As an additional ingredient, you can use not only St. John's wort oil, but also wheat germ oil.
- Mix in equal quantities the essential oils of geranium, myrrh, tea tree, lavender, petitgrane and add to them the St. John's wort.The effect of using this "cocktail" of essential oils is amazing - if the bedsores are at 1 and 2 stages of development, then the first results of such treatment will be noticeable in 24 hours, and if deep bedsores have already formed, a positive result will appear after 3-5 procedures.From this collection of essential oils you need to do warm compresses once a day and it is better to leave a bandage on the wound for the night.
Oil from sea buckthorn and dog rose
Fruits of these plants contain a large number of vitamins A, E and C - these substances help to restore and improve blood circulation, strengthen the walls of blood vessels and increase the level of regeneration in the body.That is why both traditional healers and representatives of official medicine recommend treating bedsores with sea buckthorn oil and / or rosehip oil( you can simply alternate these two products).
Before applying to the affected skin these oils, it is necessary to treat the area with camphor alcohol.Then, ulcers and clean wounds are treated with oil, wait until it is completely absorbed and only then put on the patient's clothes.It is necessary to use sterile cotton swabs for the procedure to prevent infection.
Please note: oil from sea buckthorn or rosehip is excellent for bedsores 1 and 2 developmental stages - these two drugs will act as the main treatment method.But if the pressure sores are already deep, then oil from sea buckthorn and rose hips can be considered only as an auxiliary component of complex therapy.
This is a very specific remedy for decubitus - it will be effective at the 1 st and 2 nd stages of development of the pathological process under consideration, but dangerous for deep bedsores.The fact is that camphor oil has antiseptic, wound healing and analgesic effect.This remedy is able to restore tissues, improve metabolic processes in the body, but only if applied to the skin.Therefore, with superficial bedsores, camphor oil can be applied once a day to altered skin areas, but on already existing ulcers this same agent will cause burns.
In the pharmacy networks, an ointment based on camphor oil is realized - it is more appropriate to use just such a pharmacological form of the drug in question.
Usual products from bedsores
Often people, when bedsores appear, immediately start using expensive medications, some specially prepared medications.But folk medicine claims that even the most common products can help get rid of necrotic changes on the body of a lying patient. The most effective means:
- Baking soda.It is used to treat 2 stages of decubitus, when blistering with purulent contents is already observed.What should be done?Dissolve a full tablespoon of soda in boiling water( 2 cups) and moisten the linen towel in the resulting solution.Immediately attach the towel to the problem site and leave until completely cooled.When the tissue with a decubitus is removed, pus is found directly on it - it leaves blisters.The next clean towel is taken and also wetted in soda solution, again applied.This procedure should be carried out until after cleaning the tissue from the wound does not mark the clean surface of the towel.
- Onions.It is necessary to take two heads of onions of medium size, finely chopped and fried in vegetable oil until golden brown.Then the oil is filtered, it is added beeswax or a church candle( 1 piece), which must first be melted in a water bath.This ointment can be used to treat decubituses at any stage of their development, but before each use of the remedy it needs to be warmed / melt.
- Goat fat.We combine table salt, finely chopped onions and goat fat in equal proportions - the product is ready.It should be applied to the affected skin for 20-30 minutes.
Please note: a goat fat remedy at the beginning of treatment for decubitus can cause severe pain - it must be tolerated.But as ulcers heal, the pain syndrome becomes less pronounced - this can serve as an indicator of the results of treatment.
- Cream.Here everything is simple - just once a day lubricate bedsores with cream.But you need to buy them without any flavor additives and flavors, the best option is to make the cream yourself.
Than it is possible to help a bed patient with bed sores
Of course, treatment of pressure sores is an important and necessary measure.But in fact it is necessary to know and some features of care for lying patients - in this case it will be possible to prevent occurrence of the considered pathological process. Things To Do:
- every 2 hours to change the position of a lying patient - be sure to rotate it from side to side, if it is possible to raise the upper part of the trunk, then it will be excellent;
- must purchase special mattresses filled with air or foam balls - they provide an even distribution of the load on the skin of the body, constantly changing the load from one place to another;
- if the bedside patient has incontinence of stool or urine, then diapers / diapers need to be changed as often as possible - these biomaterials will necessarily provoke the formation of pressure sores;
- daily needs to check the skin condition on the patient's body - this way it will be possible to detect the primary signs of the development of pressure sores and provide the necessary medical care;
- at least 2 times a week lying patient should be washed / wiped with a soft sponge with soapy water.
Treatment of decubitus in a bedside patient is a long process, it is often not successful.But using all the means and methods indicated in the article, it is possible to significantly alleviate the patient's condition.
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapeutist of the highest qualification category