Hypersensitivity of teeth: causes and treatment
The increased sensitivity( hyperesthesia) of the teeth is a problem with which more than half of people are facing statistics.
According to some data over the past decades, the prevalence of this disease has increased significantly and at the present time, 68% of adults( out of the number of those examined) have hyperesthesia.
If the sensitivity of the teeth is increased, then the probability is high that a person has a non-carious lesion of hard tooth tissues.Table of contents: Symptoms of hypersensitivity of teeth Causes of increased sensitivity of teeth Treatment of increased sensitivity of teeth Prevention measures
Signs of increased sensitivity of teeth
Hyperesthesia is characterized by the appearance of short-term pain sensations of different intensity associated with exposure to chemical and temperature stimuli.Teeth can also respond to a tactile( mechanical) effect.Directly pronounced hyperesthesia, it becomes problematic for a patient to chew solid food and even brush his teeth.
Severe feeling of discomfort or even acute pain can last for 10-30 seconds.Unpleasant sensations are localized( within 1-2 teeth) or generalized, when all or nearly all units of the dentition are affected by the pathological process.
Note: "tooth enamel sensitivity" is fundamentally the wrong expression, because there are no nerve endings in this outer layer of hard tissues.Discomfort and pain are associated with the effect of stimuli on the dentin.
Causes of hypersensitivity of teeth
Normally, enamel prevents the influence of temperature and other stimuli on the dentin and the neurovascular bundle( pulp) of the tooth.The pathological change in the structure of the enamel naturally leads to an increase in sensitivity.
Hyperesthesia can develop due to the loss of hard tissues.In particular, hyperesthesia of the tooth is often recorded after dental manipulations( preparation of enamel and dentin), as well as as a result of caries and non-carious lesions.
Against the backdrop of carious damage, the cause of short-term pain is the destruction of the outer layer of tissues to the enamel-dentine border, which already has considerable sensitivity.With deep caries, the dentin layer covering the pulp is very thin, as a result of which irritation is transmitted directly to the nerve.
The most common non-carious lesions that lead to hyperesthesia include:
- abnormal abrasion of hard tissues;
- erosive lesions of the enamel;
- hypoplasia( hypoplasia);
- wedge-shaped defect.
Severe discomfort often occurs if, as a result of periodontal disease, the recession of the gum develops, leading to the necrosis of the necks and even the roots of the teeth.
Sensitization of the tissues of the teeth may accompany endocrine disorders or be one of the clinical signs of certain neuropsychiatric disorders.
One of the reasons for changing the structure of the enamel is the lack of food beta-carotene( vitamin A).
Important: for the demineralization of hard tissues promotes the use of carbonated beverages, which usually contain an aggressive compound such as orthophosphoric acid.For example, in "Coca-Cola" its quantity is simply "off scale".
You can not eat very cold and hot food at the same time( ice cream with hot coffee).Differences in temperature lead to the appearance of cracks in the enamel.
In the pathogenesis of hypersensitivity teeth in women an important role is given to hormonal and metabolic pathologies of a systemic nature.A number of authors indicate a connection between non-carious lesions of enamel with a decrease in the level of estrogens( in particular - estradiol) in plasma.Hormonal failure leads to a breakdown in metabolism, resulting in a decrease in blood levels of magnesium and calcium ions.As a result of this chain of disturbances, the mineralization of the enamel deteriorates substantially.Hyperesthesia often develops during menopause, when the hormonal background undergoes significant changes.The increase in sensitivity can be noted during pregnancy, which is associated not only with endocrine changes, but also with the loss of mineral salts.
According to the accepted classification, physicians distinguish 3 degrees of hypersensitivity of dental tissues:
- There is a reaction to cold and hot.
- The tooth reacts not only to temperature stimuli, but also to the chemical compounds present in the products.
- Pain occurs in all types of exposure.
The degree of sensitivity is usually directly dependent on the activity of the disease, so it is higher during the period of exacerbation and may decrease during remission.
Hypersensitivity is often the first symptom of the onset thinning of hard tooth tissues.The exact mechanism of the development of pain in this case is not fully understood.
There are three main theories that explain the occurrence of pain in the dental tissues:
According to the receptor theory, the cause of a short-term attack of pain is the irritation of the endings in the dentinal tubules.From them, the impulse is already transmitted to the main neural bundle.
The hydrodynamic theory explains the appearance of pain by the disturbance of fluid circulation in the dentinal tubules, which leads to irritation of the mechanoreceptors of nerve fibers.
The neural-reflex theory has a right to exist.According to which the cause of pain is a change in the degree of sensitivity of the nerve endings due to a violation of normal ion exchange in the surrounding tissues.
Treatment of hypersensitivity of teeth
The measures that must be taken to reduce the sensitivity of teeth directly depend on the cause of the development of pathology.
First of all you need to visit a dentist - only a specialist can tell exactly how to relieve the sensitivity of teeth.
If hyperesthesia is caused by middle or deep caries and pulpitis, appropriate treatment is carried out, involving the removal of infected tissues( possibly - and removal of the nerve), followed by the replacement of the tissue defect with a seal.
Root debridement requires surgical intervention to raise the gums to a normal level.
In the demineralization of enamel, applications are made with calcium preparations( the usual course includes 10-15 procedures), after which the enamel surface is covered with a layer of a special lacquer with a high content of fluoride ions that clogs the micropores and prevents the elution of mineral compounds from hard tissues.If this conservative treatment is ineffective, the question of imposing a layer of filling material or setting an artificial crown may be raised.Enamel chips after injuries or unsuccessful biting also require immediate therapeutic or orthopedic treatment.
The increased abrasion of the enamel due to the bite pathology requires an orthodontic treatment.If the cause of pathological thinning is bruxism( nocturnal "gnashing of teeth"), then consultation and treatment with a specialist neurologist is necessary.
For fine enamel, it is best to use only soft toothbrushes.With special care in such cases, you need to use electrical models.
During pregnancy, women are recommended to take vitamin-mineral complexes, of course, after a preliminary consultation with the doctor in charge.
To prevent and eliminate hyperesthesia, a number of toothpastes have been developed, which include a large number of fluorides and other mineral components.
To prevent the occurrence of increased sensitivity of teeth, it is advisable to limit the consumption of acidic products and various soda.Strengthening of hard tissues contributes to the regular consumption of dairy products, fish and eggs.It is proved that it is very useful for the teeth of cocoa.
More information about the sensitivity of the teeth you get by viewing this video review:
Plisov Vladimir, dentist