Dehydration: Symptoms and Treatment
Jun 03, 2018
Dehydration or dehydration is a deficiency of fluid in the body.This condition has a pronounced negative effect on the work of all organs and systems.The immediate cause of dehydration is the situation when the body receives less water than it loses.Table of contents: Causes of dehydration Symptoms of dehydration Consequences of dehydration What can the victim do if dehydrated?What can others do to treat dehydration?Prevention of dehydration
Reasons for dehydration
The most common causes of dehydration include:
- excessive sweating;
- heat stroke;
- copious diuresis( increased urine separation, for example, against the background of diuretics);
- is a sugar and diabetes insipidus;
- Addison's disease;
- acute diarrhea;
- severe vomiting;
- low fluid intake( possibly on the background of severe nausea or loss of appetite).
Note: dehydration and body temperature are often interrelated.With hyperthermia against a background of a number of diseases, the loss of water in the body increases somewhat.
Symptoms of dehydration
Dehydration normally stimulates the center of thirst in the brain, so the person begins to drink more.
Note: is an important sign of dehydration in adults and is a rapid fatigue.
If the required amount of fluid does not flow, then a more severe degree of dehydration occurs.At the same time, diuresis decreases and the level of sweating decreases.To partially compensate for the lack of water in the blood, the body "takes" water from the cells.In the next stage, the cells "wrinkle", and their functional activity is disturbed.The most sensitive to dehydration are the brain cells, so one of the most important signs of severe dehydration is confusion.It is also possible that the coma develops.Important signs of dehydration:
- feeling of thirst;
- dry mouth;
- decreased perspiration;
- decrease in the volume of urinary retention;
- change in color of urine( before dark yellow);
- appearance of dark circles under the eyes;
- general weakness;
- decreased skin turgor( lack of elasticity);
- impaired consciousness;
- lowering of blood pressure( orthostatic hypotension);
- weight loss( not always);
- increased body temperature( more typical for dehydration in children).
Important: dehydration in children is always manifested by a decrease in the activity of the baby.
Water shortage requires timely and adequate compensation.When there is a shortage of liquid in the blood of a person, the level of sodium significantly increases, which negatively affects the work of the body.
Consequences of dehydration
Dehydration, especially due to severe vomiting and / or diarrhea, leads to the fact that important electrolytes are lost with water.Their lack becomes the reason of infringement of moving of water from intracellular space in a blood channel.As a consequence, the volume of water in the bloodstream decreases even more.
In case of a critical loss of fluid( as well as the loss of potassium and sodium ions), the blood pressure drops to dangerous digits.The most severe complication in this case is shock and parallel damage to the cells of the central nervous system, liver and kidneys.
Signs of development of the shock state are:
- rapid pulse of low filling;
- pallor of the skin;
- frequent breathing;
- cold sticky sweat;
- loss of consciousness.
Frequent dehydration in a number of cases can lead to the emergence of immunodeficient conditions, as well as provoke the development of neurological pathologies( multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease), systemic autoimmune pathologies( lupus, asthma and even malignant tumors).
What can the injured person do if dehydrated?
First of all, you need to drink as much liquid as possible.It is better if it is pure water or special pharmacy solutions for rehydration.Restore the normal level of electrolytes will help, in particular, the drug Regidron.
Do not consume alcoholic beverages( such as beer).Their diuretic properties will only aggravate dehydration.
What can others do to treat dehydration?
If signs of dehydration have appeared in a baby or child under 10 years old, an ambulance team should be called urgently.To compensate for the lack of fluids, intravenous fluids may be required.
If an adult has a sharp decrease in blood pressure and there is a disturbance of consciousness, you also need to call "ambulance", as patients need to hold a complex of anti-shock measures.Severe dehydration always requires intravenous replacement of a lack of fluid and electrolytes.
Prevention of dehydration
The human body is on average 70% water.Therefore, the lack of this vital compound and electrolytes dissolved in it quickly disrupts the functional activity of a number of organs and systems.
Dehydration is one of the pathological conditions that is much easier to prevent than to later eliminate.
It is necessary to keep drinking during the day, that is, to consume a certain amount of liquid, regardless of physical activity, ambient temperature and general health.
Important: for an adult human water consumption rate at a high ambient temperature and against a background of physical activity is 1 liter per hour!
It is especially important to ensure that an adequate amount of water is consumed by the child.The risk group for dehydration includes infants( especially if diarrhea and vomiting develops).
Note : in hot weather, the active child should drink at least 150 ml of water in half an hour.
You also need to closely monitor the drinking regimen of relatives of the elderly and senile age - they dehydration can develop very quickly due to age-related features of the body.
For acute diseases, especially those associated with fever, the liquid should be 1.5-2 times more than usual.
For more information on symptoms, methods of prevention and treatment of dehydration, you will receive a video review:
Viktorova Julia, medical reviewer