Dermatoses: causes, symptoms, treatment
Dermatoses are a common name for a large group of skin diseases of various origins and with a variety of clinical symptoms.Pathologies can affect people of any age group.
Important: belongs to such serious diseases as bubble dermatosis, psoriasis and neurodermatitis.Table of contents: Causes of dermatitis Classification Clinical symptoms of dermatoses Dermatoses during pregnancy Diagnosis of dermatoses Treatment of dermatoses
Causes of dermatosis
Dermatoses can develop under the influence of a number of exo- and endogenous factors.Exogenous, in particular, include the effects of high temperatures and aggressive chemical compounds( burns), viral and bacterial infectious agents and mechanical damage.Skin lesions are often the result of toxins exposure to insect bites, as well as infection after animal bites( in such cases, it is customary to talk about dermatose-zoonoses).
Important: The frequent cause of skin diseases is the introduction of infectious agents through damaged skin.Bacterial dermatoses cause streptococci, staphylococci, and also pyogenic bacteria.Infection can lead not only to primary, but also to secondary lesions.
Endogenous( internal) factors include general diseases of infectious and inflammatory genesis, as well as pathologies of the nervous, digestive and cardiovascular systems.The cause of development of a significant part of dermatoses is changes in the functional activity of organs and metabolic disturbances( metabolic processes).Of great importance is also the state of the immune system.
Skin pathologies often accompany diseases of the hematopoietic system( observed in patients with leukemia and lymphomas).Exudative erythema, as well as itching dermatosis and urticaria may be a direct consequence of the presence in the patient's body of chronic infectious foci( including patients with teeth).
Due to disturbances in metabolic processes and hyperreactivity of the immune system, bullous( bubble) dermatoses develop, as well as allergic skin lesions in the form of urticaria.Itchy dermatoses, including neurodermatitis, in adults can be the result of malfunctions in the nervous system caused by frequent psychoemotional stresses.
Symptoms of some dermatoses are manifested throughout life( chronic dermatoses), and a number of diseases are temporary and associated with the restructuring of the endocrine and immune systems of the body( in particular - dermatosis of pregnant women).
Dermatoses are often congenital.Clinical manifestations of pathology can be present in the baby at birth or develop in the first weeks of life, as, in particular, in allergic dermatosis.
The cause of itching dermatosis in children can be an intoxication of the child's organism even during the period of intrauterine development.Infants in a number of cases diagnosed with itching dermatosis with a predominant lesion of the skin of the face and limbs.
For adolescence, when there is an active hormonal alteration of the body, seborrhea and the appearance of acne( acne) are quite typical.In elderly patients, as a rule, there are dermatoses of viral etiology, as well as thinning of the skin, caused by natural aging processes.
At any age against the background of a decrease in the reactivity of the body( i.e. with weakened immunity) skin lesions resulting from a viral, protozoal or fungal infection may develop.
According to the currently accepted classification, the following groups of skin diseases are distinguished:
- bullous( bubble) dermatoses;
- allergic rashes;
- itching dermatoses;
- skin pathologies caused by mental disorders.
Infectious( impetigo and herpes) as well as non-infectious skin lesions are classified as bladder dermatoses( diseases of autoimmune genesis - bladder dermatitis and bullous epidermolysis).
The group of allergic dermatoses includes toxemia, contact dermatitis and dermatozoonosis after insect and animal bites.
To pruritic dermatoses, polymorphic dermatosis of pregnant women, as well as eczema and neurodermatitis are included.
In the case of mental disorders( eg, dermatozoic delirium), the formation of rashes on the skin can result in permanent overvoltage in combination with auto-hypnosis.
It is separately accepted to consider professional dermatoses, i.e. skin pathologies, developing in connection with the nature of the patient's work activity.
The classification of occupational diseases takes into account the etiological factors, according to which these dermatoses are divided into:
- due to regular contact with aggressive chemical compounds( oils, alkalis, acids or pharmacological components);
- infectious dermatoses;
- pathologies due to reaction to physical factors( electric current, high temperature, various types of radiation);
- dermatoses arising from contact with fine mechanical particles( glass wool, dust, asbestos, cement).
In particular, the "chemical" refers to contact inflammatory lesions( dermatitis), allergic pathologies, toxicermy and pemphigus dermatoses.The introduction of fungi causes dermatomycosis, and bacteria lead to the development of an infectious bullous form.
By the nature of the clinical manifestations, it can be conditionally identified:
- dermatoses with a predominance of general symptoms( signs of intoxication and hyperthermia) and minor skin manifestations;
- pathology, in which the foreground are different skin rashes and local symptoms( itching, burning, pain syndrome).
Clinical symptoms of dermatoses
For bubble dermatoses, the appearance of primary elements in the form of vesicles on the skin is characteristic.They can be small( vesicles) or relatively large( bullae).
In allergic dermatoses, there is hyperemia and swelling of the skin, as well as polymorphous rashes( more often - in the form of vesicles).
For itching dermatoses, the formation of crusts, a significant thickening of the skin and strengthening its "pattern"( lichenization), as well as wetness.One of the leading symptoms characteristic of the clinical picture of this type of pathology is intense itching.
Dermatoses during pregnancy
This manifestation of dermatoses, as a pruritus, occurs in 2% of pregnant women.The cause of itching is a violation of bile acid metabolism and stimulation of their secretion against the background of hormonal changes in the body( under the influence of female sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone).
In the early stages, it is possible to develop a neuro-allergic dermatosis, such as prurigo( in people, the disease is known as "prurigo").With it on the skin appear primary eruptions in the form of papules or vesicles( also often form the bullae) with a characteristic hemorrhagic crust.
In later terms, polymorphic dermatosis can be diagnosed, due to a significant increase in the weight of the woman herself and the weight of her future child.This form is characterized by the formation of large blisters on the hips and lower abdomen.The appearance of elements is accompanied by intense itching.
Pregnant dermatoses in the vast majority of cases pass on their own within several weeks after the birth of the child as the hormonal background returns to normal.
Diagnosis of dermatoses
When diagnosing, the most important is the external examination of the patient by a dermatologist and careful collection of an anamnesis to identify possible etiological factors.Some types of diseases( in particular - dermatozoonosis) can be diagnosed already at this stage.
Since the appearance of many types of rashes is caused by metabolic disorders and pathologies of the internal organs, in most cases a comprehensive( complex) medical examination is required.To detect metabolic disorders, a laboratory examination of blood( including biochemical analysis) and urine is required.
As additional methods, scraping with subsequent microscopy of the obtained material and translucence are used.
Diagnosis of individual dermatoses requires the participation of other specialists.For example, if you suspect dermatozoic delusions, you need to bring in a psychiatrist.
Treatment of dermatoses
Therapeutic tactics and the choice of drugs depend on the specific nosological form and severity of the course of dermatosis.Applicable can be both generic drugs and local remedies for symptomatic therapy.
Medications for the treatment of dermatoses
For the reduction of pruritus and irritation, as well as relief of inflammation and accompanying puffiness, for example, Biopin and Dermatosol are used.
If the dermatosis develops against the background of a common disease, then the therapy is primarily aimed at eliminating the underlying cause of skin lesions.
With itchy dermatosis of newborns, which is due to intrauterine intoxication, in most cases it is possible to cope in the first weeks after the birth of the child.
Etiological and pathogenetic therapy involves the elimination of the cause that caused the disease.Dermatoses due to the introduction of parasites, in the first place, require the prompt excretion of the pathogen from the body.Treatment of pathologies caused by neoplasm of organs( paraneoplastic dermatoses) includes the mandatory removal of tumors.
For bacterial etiology, antibiotic therapy is indicated, and for viral use, antiviral drugs are used.
To reduce or completely stop the inflammatory process, patients are often prescribed hormones from the group of glucocorticosteroids.Drugs of this category also contribute to the early recovery of skin.They are especially effective in the treatment of bullous and polymorphic dermatoses.
Treatment of dermatoses with folk remedies
From non-pharmacological methods, many patients demonstrate compliance with the diet, as well as physiotherapy and spa treatment.For some types of skin diseases, it may be recommended to receive course treatment in balneological clinics( mud baths).
The effectiveness of phytotherapy, i.e., the use of herbal medicines, is also proved.Widely used collections, which include medicinal herbs, which have reparative( restoring tissue), anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic properties.
The following plants can be included in the preparation for decoctions and infusions:
- three-color violet;
Note: for the treatment of dermatose-zoonoses is recommended topically to apply the juice of raw potatoes and parsley, as well as a decoction of mint leaves.
To enhance the immune status, medicinal plants such as ginseng, levsea, eleutherococcus and aralia are shown.To reduce the manifestations of the general intoxication of the body phytopreparations are possible on the basis of extracts of lily of the valley and milk thistle.
Please note: may be applied externally to certain products of beekeeping, in particular - propolis.
For local manifestations of bullous dermatoses, appliqués and irrigation are recommended with decoction of celandine and belladonna( belladonna).To cure dermatoses of parasitic etiology, essential oils derived from cloves, lavender and rosemary help.
For the preparation of compresses, you can use a mixture of grated garlic and mustard oil.
Konev Alexander, Therapeutist