Acne( acne): causes, symptoms, and treatments
Acne is a disease of the sebaceous glands, which is characterized by blockage and development of the inflammatory process in the hair follicles.Another name for the disease is acne.It affects the acne of people of different ages, it causes a lot of problems due to pathological changes in appearance.Table of contents Causes of development of acne Symptoms of acne Rashes of acne development Treatment of acne
Causes of development of acneRecommended to read:
The appearance of acne is due to a violation of the function of the sebaceous glands, namely, their hypersecretion. This dysfunction may develop as a result of the following factors: :
- Hormonal alteration of the body.Most often, this factor "works" in adolescence - a powerful choice of steroid hormones just provokes an increased secretion of sebaceous glands.This feature of the hormonal background is inherited in most cases.Therefore, if the parents had an acne in their youth, then with probability of 89% it will appear in their child.
- Premenstrual rash.The fact is that the level of steroid hormones in the body of a woman does not have a constant value - it fluctuates throughout the menstrual cycle.In its last phase, the level becomes as high as possible - in 78% of women these days appear rashes.And even if on normal days a woman does not have even the slightest signs of acne, 1-2 pimples may appear 2-3 days before the month.Hormonal acne.
- .It's not about adolescents - they have an acne that appears due to age, when hormonal changes in the body go.But often acne is observed in quite adult, held men and women.But this is already an excuse to seek help from professionals - most likely, during the examination will be revealed some disease of the endocrine system.For example, in women, acne vulgaris over the age of 25 can be a sign of polycystic ovary, and in men it can be a disorder of adrenal function.
- Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.Many doctors argue that acne and digestive system work are directly related.As a result of the research, it was found that the predominance of carbohydrates in food helps to increase the secretion of sebaceous glands.Acne can occur on the background of gastritis( inflammation of the gastric mucosa) and pancreatitis( inflammation of the pancreas), dysbiosis.In many cases, getting rid of the underlying disease disappears and acne.
- Stress.In itself, this condition is not able to provoke the appearance of acne.But stress actively affects the work of the hormonal system - the result can be numerous rashes.
In addition, the disease in question can occur against a background of reduced immunity - for example, after a long illness or frequent recurrences of chronic pathologies.Often, acne occurs due to the aggressive effects of external factors - in this case we are talking about exogenous causes of acne. These include :
- Cosmetics.Not all, but only wrongly selected.You need to take into account the predisposition of the body to acne - for example, friable powder clogs the pores of the skin, the consequence will be an inflammation of the sebaceous glands.
- Hot climate.And, not only hot, but also in combination with high humidity this factor can not provoke the onset of acne development, but if there is a predisposition to this disease, you should carefully protect the face, shoulders and décolletage zone from sweat exposure.
- Contact with toxic substances.This applies to cases where a person is working in hazardous production and is constantly in contact with chemicals, solvents, paints.
- Medication administration.This applies only to certain drugs - for example, in women, acne may appear after the abolition of oral contraceptives, and in men - against the background of taking corticosteroids.
Strangely enough, but the disease under consideration can occur in too clean people.They, as a rule, often wash, thus drying the skin.It loses its protective functions - the probability of the appearance of acne is 80%.
Eruptions in this disease can be represented in the following types of :
- Comedones.This nodule formations are white non-inflammatory in nature, which do not have an outlet on the skin( closed comedones).Over time, dust accumulates in them, the secret of sebaceous glands, dirt - open comedones are formed, which have a black apex protruding above the surface of the skin.
- Acne of the papular type.They are dense tubercles above a skin the size of a pea, differ reddish-cyanotic color.Usually such papular acne emits massively, which gives the skin an uneven appearance, tuberous.There are two ways of developing papules - they either "subside" and disappear( reverse development), or go to pustules.
- Acne of the pustular type.These are vesicles that are rather painful, with white contents.Pustules usually either heal completely without a trace, or form into large pustules and after healing leave noticeable scars on the skin.
Each of the described elements of acne can develop into nodes and cystic cavities - they refer to severe manifestations of acne.The healing of both nodes and cystic cavities results in the formation of characteristic scars.
Stages of development of acne
There are four stages of the current disease, depending on the severity of the patient's condition. On the stage at which acne was diagnosed, the type of treatment for will also depend: Stage 1 - the easiest, characterized by the appearance on the skin of single comedones - open or closed type.Treatment of this stage is easy and has a very favorable prognosis.Stage 2 - acne is already represented by numerous open and closed comedones, papules with obvious signs of inflammation.Treatment of this stage of acne is quite possible, and the forecast doctors give a favorable, but the duration of therapy will be at least 6 weeks.Stage 3 - refers to the severe stage of acne, rashes on the skin are the same as in the first two stages, but there are many more - in many cases they are a fusion inflammatory process.Treatment is possible only with the help of specially selected therapy.Stage 4 - the extreme severity of the current disease, the skin has all kinds of elements of acne.In this case, a long, serious specialized treatment is required.
Acne treatmentRecommended to read:
Treatment for the disease in question should be exceptionally complex.It is impossible to do with just one single medicine or cosmetic procedure, so the patient should be ready for a long course of therapy and recovery.
Already the 2nd stage of acne development requires the use of medicines - usually during this period the inflammatory process in all elements is already very active. As a rule, doctors use the following preparations:
- Benzoyl peroxide, tretinoin, azeloic acid - first-line drugs in the treatment of acne.They have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects, and tretinoin normalizes the processes of keratinization of the epithelium.Its effectiveness is shown only after long-term use - at least 3 months.
Note: in some cases, listed medicines can cause irritation and allergic reactions - in this case, you just need to reduce the number of procedures applying them to diseased skin areas.You can not use three drugs to treat acne - the doctor will tell you which two of them will be most effective in each case.
- Antibiotics.In the treatment of acne, some of them are used exclusively as an external remedy and only if prolonged use of first-line drugs does not give positive results.These drugs include erythromycin and clindamycin.
Note: the danger of too long use of external antibiotics is the possible development of addiction to them from the body and reducing the effect.
- Systemic antibacterial drugs.Here it is also about antibiotics, only they are used orally( inside).Such funds are prescribed for the treatment of acne of moderate severity of the course, when the previously undertaken method of treatment has not yielded results.Patients are prescribed doxycycline and minocycline.
Note: systemic antibiotics can cause side effects: intestinal dysbiosis, vaginal dysbiosis, pigmentation on the skin and nails, development of gastric ulcer.It is necessary to take into account the compatibility of systemic antibiotics with other medicines - in some cases, a strong allergic reaction may appear.
- Antiandrogens.Used only in the treatment of acne in women - hormonal contraceptives with a high content of androgens simultaneously with external medicines are prescribed.
Use of hardware methods of treatment of the disease in question can only be combined with drugs and at the stage of formation of single comedones. The hardware therapy includes :
- surface-type cryotherapy;
- laser therapy;
- professional face cleaning;
About hardware methods of acne treatment, the doctor tells:
How to get rid of acne with the help of traditional medicine?
Even the oldest recipes from the category "folk medicine" will not help with the treatment of acne - they can have only an additional effect, speed up the process of getting rid of the elements of acne. It is recommended to use :
- Infusion of celandine.To make it, you need to take 2 tablespoons of dried celandine grass( sold in pharmacies) and pour in 500 ml of steep boiling water.The infusion should stand for 20-30 minutes, then it is filtered.The resulting remedy is used for lotions on the affected skin - you can do not more than 2 such procedures per day.
- Birch buds.You need to take 2 tablespoons dry birch buds, pour a glass of boiling water and boil for 20 minutes with slow boiling.Insists on decoction until completely cooled.Decoction of birch buds should be washed regularly, it will also come in handy for compresses - not more than 1 time per day.
- Juice of leaves of aloe.Leaves of treelike aloe( usual room variant) are torn off, mine and we clean for 10 days in a dark and cool place.After this period, we crush the leaves, squeeze out the juice and wipe the affected face with an acne.Such procedures need to be done 2 times a day.You can not store the resulting juice - it almost immediately loses its healing properties.
- Calendula tincture.It is sold in pharmacies - you do not need anything yourself.Mix in equal proportions honey( it is better to take buckwheat) and tincture of calendula and make compresses to the affected areas of the skin once a day.
In the treatment of acne, it is very important to use medical assistance - it is the specialist who will conduct the examination and find out the cause of the appearance of acne.Yes, and drugs with a regimen can only be selected / appointed by a doctor.With a competent approach to solving the problem, you can achieve excellent results - the main thing is to get a doctor's help in a timely manner.
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapist of the highest qualification category