Phlebitis: Symptoms and Treatment
Jun 06, 2018
Phlebitis is the inflammation of the venous wall.Phlebitis quickly enough transformed into a more formidable disease - thrombophlebitis, when in the lumen of an inflamed vessel thrombi appear.Therefore, it is so important to identify phlebitis in time to prevent further progression of the disease.Table of contents:
Inflammation of the veins develops under the influence of various adverse factors. Phlebitis predominantly occurs against the background of existing varicose veins.This is facilitated by a hemodynamic disorder that occurs with varicose veins.
In addition, phlebitis can be caused directly by various microorganisms, mainly strepto- and staphylococcus.Microbes enter the vein in the presence of a purulent wound or infectious disease.
Phlebitis develops with a chemical burn of veins, when aggressive medications and substances are introduced into the vessel.Phlebitis can produce hypertensive solutions( calcium chloride, 40% glucose solution).Also, the inflammation of the vein leads to the introduction of a vein of "artisanal drugs", when they use all kinds of solvents and household chemicals for their preparation.
Promote the development of phlebitis and directly injure the venous wall during catheterization and prolonged intravenous administration of drugs.
Depending on the location of the inflammatory process in the venous wall, distinguish:
- Periphlebitis - affects the outer vein of the vein.Occurs when inflammation spreads from surrounding tissues to the vessel wall.
- Endoflebit - the inner vein of the vein is affected.Often occurs when the inner vein of the vein is damaged, for example, by catheterization of the vessel.
- Panflebit - all the walls of the venous wall are affected.
Symptoms of phlebitis
Venous inflammation can occur anywhere in the body, but most often occurs in the legs of .The veins of the lower extremities are superficial and deep.The defeat of certain vessels is accompanied by certain symptoms.
Phlebitis of the lower extremities
In acute superficial phlebitis, the affected vein becomes noticeably tense, painful.The patient himself may notice that the skin above this site is red, hot, and the red strips of the are viewed along the course of the affected vein.In rare cases, a person may be bothered by fever, weakness.
In the absence of treatment of acute superficial phlebitis, the disease is transformed into a chronic form.With chronic superficial phlebitis, the symptoms of the disease are less pronounced.Periods of subsidence of the disease alternate with exacerbations.
With acute deep phlebitis in the area of the inflamed vein, pain is noted, as well as swelling of the corresponding leg segment.Thus the skin becomes pale, even white.In most cases, this ailment is accompanied by an increase in body temperature, malaise, weakness.
Phlebitis of the upper limbs
Phlebitis on the arm is often called postinjection.Already by name it is clear that it is provoked by intravenous injections in the arm region. Growing pain in the puncture area of the vein should alert the person, this may indicate the onset of postinjectional phlebitis.
The first symptom of phlebitis is the redness of the skin in the area of injection or catheter placement.Soon reddening spreads from the injection site along the entire inflamed vein.The hand is swollen.There may be an increase in temperature, the appearance of weakness, an increase in axillary and ulnar lymph nodes.
Migrating phlebitis is also known as an allergic vagus phlebitis and belongs to the group of systemic vasculitis.The ailment often accompanies autoimmune diseases, some oncological, infectious diseases, allergic reactions. Mostly young men are ill.
Migrating phlebitis is characterized by the defeat of the veins of the lower and upper extremities.It all begins with the fact that in the course of the superficial veins of the legs there are compacted strands of various lengths.The skin above the affected vessel is red, edematous and painful.It is noteworthy that such changes occur alternately on different veins, as if the inflammation "jumps" from one vein to another.Sometimes, at the same time, inflammation of various veins can occur, for example, on the arm and leg.
Often the general condition of the patient does not suffer, can only increase the temperature.But with multiple veins, a person can feel weakness, malaise.
Cerebral phlebitis and pylephlebitis
With cerebral phlebitis( inflammation of the veins of the cerebral vessels), headache occurs with nausea and vomiting, neurological symptoms in the form of speech disorders, changes in consciousness, gait unsteadiness, paresis of limbs, convulsive seizures.
Pilephlebitis occurs when the inflammation from the nearby inflamed abdominal organs( appendix) spreads to the portal vein.The pathological condition is characterized by fever, severe weakness, jaundice, pain in the right side. This is a very dangerous disease that can lead to even death.
Treatment of phlebitis
Effective control of phlebitis is possible with the help of conservative methods of treatment. However, therapeutic measures should be introduced as early as possible in order to prevent the transformation of phlebitis into thrombophlebitis. Conservative methods include medical therapy, physiotherapy, as well as wearing compression knitwear.
In the presence of phlebitis, it is important to identify the cause of the pathological condition.If phlebitis is caused by an infection, the patient is prescribed antibiotics. In other cases, drug treatment includes the administration of such drugs:
- NSAIDs( Ibuprofen, Ketonov) - eliminate inflammation and pain;
- Drugs that improve microcirculation( Actovegin, Pentoxifylline, Trental);
- Drugs that reduce blood viscosity( Acetylsalicylic acid, Cardiomagnesium) - prevent the formation of blood clots;
- Means for topical treatment( ointments: Troxevasin, Venobene, heparin ointment, Lyoton Gel).
In postinjectional phlebitis, as a rule, they are limited to applying compresses with ointments( heparin, Troxevasin, Venoben, Lyoton Gel ) to the affected hand.These medications reduce edema, have anti-inflammatory effect, prevent the formation of blood clots.
When phlebitis a patient, a physician can recommend a physiotherapy procedure.This can be laser therapy, magnetotherapy, mud applications, infrared radiation .Physiotherapy is an auxiliary treatment that, if properly administered, can lead to a speedy recovery.
The action of physiotherapy is aimed at improving metabolic processes in cells, reducing inflammation.In addition, physiotherapy reduces soft tissue edema and eliminates pain.
Changing the way of life
The formation of a healthy lifestyle plays an important role in combating phlebitis. To ensure normal microcirculation in the legs, you need to be active and play sports.Patients with phlebitis also recommend lying on their backs to lift their legs and hold them for several minutes. This position contributes to the outflow of blood and prevents its stasis in the lower limbs.
Smoking is an aggravating factor for the development of phlebitis.Therefore, those who want to get rid of phlebitis( or prevent it from occurring) need to abandon the bad habit.
A true ally of patients with phlebitis can be considered a compression jersey or elastic bandage.Wearing compression jersey helps to avoid stagnation of venous blood in the legs and formation of blood clots in the future.
Grigorova Valeria, medical reviewer