Asphyxia in a newborn: degree, consequences, first aid with asphyxia
Jun 07, 2018
Asphyxia in the newborn is a pathology of the respiratory function of the infant, with the concomitant development of oxygen deficiency.Such a problem can arise both in the generic process, and during the first days after the appearance of the baby in the light.Asphyxia is a rather dangerous condition requiring the provision of competent and, importantly, timely professional assistance.Table of contents: Varieties and degrees of asphyxia in newborns What causes intrauterine asphyxia?Causes of postpartum asphyxia What complications during childbirth can lead to asphyxia?What causes secondary asphyxiation?How does the pathology manifest itself?Consequences of newborn asphyxia Post-asphyxiated therapy Further care About prevention
Varieties and degrees of asphyxia in newborns
Asphyxia in newborn babies is a common problem. Depending on the reasons for its occurrence, physicians distinguish two types of asphyxia :
- Intrauterine - develops against the background of a prolonged stay of the baby in the mother's womb.
- Postpartum - is a complication of the birth process.
Please note : according to statistics, asphyxia manifestations are diagnosed in 4% of newborn babies!
Depending on the severity of the manifestations, asphyxia is divided into 3 degrees: mild, moderate, severe.The pathological process is accompanied by a disorder of the respiratory function and disturbances in the activity of the cardiovascular system. Causes that can provoke the development of asphyxia in a newborn are numerous and varied.In many ways provoking factors depend on the type of pathology and the time of its manifestation( primary or secondary).
What causes intrauterine asphyxia?
Primary intrauterine asphyxia, in most cases, develops against a background of prolonged hypoxia of the child in the mother's womb .To provoke this pathology, according to doctors, the following factors can be:
- incorrect, irrational nutrition of the expectant mother;
- iron deficiency anemia in pregnant women;
- vitamin deficiency;
- effects on the fetus of toxic substances;
- placental abnormalities;
- defects and pathologies in the structure of the umbilical cord;
- uncontrolled use of some medications during pregnancy.
- birth shock;
- smoking and drinking alcoholic drinks while the baby is waiting;
- gestosis, taking place in severe form;
- violation of gas exchange processes in the placenta;
- increased arterial blood pressure of the parturient woman, resulting in impaired placental circulation;
- Immunological incompatibility between mother and baby( Rh-conflict pregnancy);
- age category of parturient women over 40 years of age.
Important! The presence of infectious, cardiovascular and endocrine diseases in a future mother, proceeding in chronic form, increases the risk of asphyxia in a baby.Therefore, a pregnant woman with such health problems should be under the constant supervision of a doctor in charge!
Causes of postpartum asphyxia
Primary postpartum asphyxia occurs primarily on the background of birth defects and congenital disorders of the baby .
The following factors can cause the newborn to be affected by this pathology:
- premature delivery;
- incorrect fetal position;
- belated birth;
- traumatic injury of the spinal cord or brain;
- obstruction of the infant's airway;
- is an intrauterine infection;
- delayed development and fetal growth;
- is a disorder in the functioning of the baby's thyroid.
Important ! Most often postpartum asphyxia is diagnosed in premature babies.Also, the defects of the internal organs of the fetus can lead to this problem, therefore it is important to make control ultrasound during pregnancy so that the doctors are as ready as possible to provide first aid to the baby.
What complications in childbirth can lead to asphyxiation?
Quite often asphyxia in a baby is fixed in the case of difficult births. To the development of pathology, according to obstetrician-gynecologists, the following complications of the birth process result:
- application of general anesthesia and potent analgesics;
- uterine rupture;
- hypoxia;Caesarean section of the
- placental pathologies;
- is a multiple pregnancy;
- weakness of labor activity;
- removal of the placenta;
- defects in the structure of the umbilical cord;
- insufficient or, on the contrary, excessive amount of amniotic fluid;
- baby's cord crochet by the umbilical cord;
- premature detachment of the placenta.From what does secondary asphyxiation originate?
Problems with the respiratory system may appear in the baby a few days after it was born.
This type of pathology is called secondary asphyxia.
Possible causes of the doctor include the following:
- narrowing of the airways( stenoses);
- hemorrhages in the lung;
- heart defects not detected immediately after birth;
- disorders of circulatory processes in the brain area;
- manifestations of a distress syndrome of a respiratory nature;
- hyaline membranes;
- presence of atelectasis localized in the lung;
- insufficient sanation of the gastric cavity after the appearance of the baby;
- disorders in the central nervous system.
Important ! The ingestion of breast milk or a mixture during feeding into the baby's airway can also lead to the development of secondary asphyxia!
How does the pathology manifest itself?
Clinical manifestations of asphyxia in newborn babies depend on the severity of the pathological process. In the case of asphyxiation occurring in mild form, the child may have signs such as a weakening of the respiratory function, a blue color of the skin in the region of the lips and nose, a lowered muscular tone of the .
For a moderate degree of asphyxia, the following symptoms are characteristic:
- weakness and respiratory failure;
- rare heart rate( bradycardia);
- muscular dystonia;
- increased motor activity;
- trembling of limbs and chin;Weakening of reflexes
With a severe degree of asphyxia, the baby's breathing is either completely absent or is manifested by rare, superficial inhalations.
In addition, the child has the following alarming symptoms:
- bradycardia that occurs in severe form;
- heart rhythm disturbances( arrhythmia);
- decreased muscle tone;
- pallor of the skin and mucous membranes;
- convulsive syndrome;
- numerous hemorrhages in the area of the skin.
Important ! In the absence of any signs of life, a newborn is clinically dead.In this case, the child needs urgent help from doctors-resuscitators!
Consequences of newborn asphyxiation
Asphyxia is an extremely difficult and dangerous condition, which is fraught with numerous complications.
Among the early complications of this pathology, physicians distinguish the following:
- necrotic processes;
- edema and hemorrhages in the brain;
- swelling in the lungs.
Important ! In the absence of timely medical care, asphyxia can lead to the blocking of respiratory function and the death of the baby!However, even if the doctors' efforts have been successful and the respiratory function of the infant has been restored within a few months, there are high likelihood of developing the following complications that are classified as late:
- blood poisoning;
- increased excitability of the nervous system;
- slowed reactions;
- convulsive syndrome;
- disorders in the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract.
Note: , the baby who suffers from asphyxiation must be supervised by a qualified technician during the first year of life!
First Aid Measures for Newborn Asphyxiation
If a child suffers from asphyxiation, the baby needs emergency medical assistance !Medical measures begin with the fact that they drain the baby's skin and put it under a heat source.
The newborn is placed on the back, slightly tipping his head, after which the area of the nasopharynx and oral cavity, as well as the respiratory tract from the remnants of amniotic fluid, are thoroughly cleansed.
In case of weakness or complete absence of respiratory function, physicians resort to hardware ventilation of the lungs and purification of the gastric cavity of accumulated gases, using for this purpose a special probe.
Note: if the above measures do not bring the right results within 3 minutes, the doctors introduce the adrenaline to the child, do an indirect stimulation of the heart area( massage), perform the infusion therapy!
Therapy after asphyxia
Therapy of small patients after a previous asphyxia should be aimed at preventing the development of possible complications, especially hemorrhages in the brain area. In most cases, babies are recommended such medications as glutamic and nicotinic acid, Vikasol, Dicinon, etc. The course of oxygen therapy is mandatory.
Further treatment depends on the general condition of the child, the symptomatology present and the general clinical picture, and therefore is selected by a pediatric specialist on an individual basis.The average duration of the therapeutic course is about 2 weeks.
Please note: can not feed a child after a delayed asphyxia, not earlier than after 15-16 hours.Infants with a severe form of asphyxia are fed, usually with a probe after a day.
For the rehabilitation of a child after asphyxia for 3 years, such physiotherapy procedures as massage and therapeutic gymnastics are recommended.
After discharge from the maternity hospital it is important to strictly follow all the recommendations issued by the specialist regarding further treatment and care of the baby!Doctors-pediatricians do not recommend starting luring children who have had asphyxia, before the age of one.If there is such an opportunity, it is advisable that the baby eat milk of the mother for one and a half years.
Since babies with asphyxiation are especially susceptible to diseases of a viral and infectious nature, for preventive purposes pediatricians recommend a course of vitamin therapy for them.
On the prevention of
The future mother will be able to prevent the development of asphyxiation in a baby if she complies with the following expert recommendations:
- Pregnancy planning.Even before conception, undergo a comprehensive medical examination and treat all the revealed pathologies.
- It is full and rational to eat in the waiting period of the baby.
- Take special vitamin and mineral complexes for expectant mothers.
- Do gymnastics for pregnant women, regularly take walks in the open air and avoid psycho-emotional shocks.
A regular visit to the future mother of a gynecologist, the conduct of planned ultrasound and the delivery of laboratory tests of are of great importance in the prevention of asphyxia in newborns.Timely diagnosis will identify and treat possible complications during pregnancy, fraught with subsequent asphyxia( such as gestosis, hypoxia, placental insufficiency, etc.).
Please note : according to statistical data, measures to prevent asphyxia in newborns give positive results in 40% of cases!
Asphyxia in newborns is a dangerous condition, fraught with complete suppression of respiratory function and development of severe complications of .At the first signs, characteristic for the given pathology, the kid needs urgent help of doctors - resuscitators!The subsequent treatment is aimed at preventing possible complications and is set individually.The causes of asphyxia are very diverse, however, pregnancy planning and strict follow-up by the mother's recommendations of a specialist will help to reduce possible risks to minimum indicators!
Betsik Julia, obstetrician-gynecologist