Basic principles of treatment of open wounds at home
Jun 07, 2018
The basic principle of treatment of open wounds is to restore the regenerative function of the skin - nature is so arranged that the skin cells are able under certain conditions to self-repair.But this is possible only if there are missing dead cells in the wound site - this is the essence of treating open wounds.Table of contents: Stages of treatment of open wounds Primary treatment in the treatment of open wounds How to treat a clotting open wound How to treat an open purulent wound Creams and ointments for the treatment of wounds at home Folk remedies for open wounds
Stages of treatment of open wounds
Treatment of open woundsWounds in any case implies the passage of three stages - primary self-purification, inflammation and granulation tissue repair.
As soon as a wound and bleeding has opened, the vessels begin to taper sharply - this allows a clot of platelets to form, which will stop the bleeding.Then the narrowed vessels widen sharply.The result of this "work" of blood vessels will be a slowing of blood flow, an increase in the permeability of the walls of the vessels and a progressive swelling of the soft tissues.
It was found that a similar reaction of the vessels leads to the cleansing of damaged soft tissues without the use of any antiseptic agents.
This is the second stage of the wound process, which is characterized by increased swelling of the soft tissues, the skin becomes red.Combined with bleeding and inflammation, a significant increase in the number of leukocytes in the blood is provoked.
Restoration of tissues by their granulation
This stage of the wound process can begin and against the background of inflammation - nothing pathological in this.The formation of granulation tissue begins directly in the open wound, as well as along the edges of the open wound and on the surface of the closely located epithelium.
Over time, granulation tissue degenerates into a connective tissue, and completed this stage will be considered only after an open scar is formed on the site of the open wound.
Distinguish the healing of an open wound by primary and secondary tension.The first variant of the development of the process is possible only if the wound is non-extensive, its edges are brought together closely and there is no pronounced inflammation at the site of injury.A secondary tension occurs in all other cases, including with purulent wounds.
The peculiarities of the treatment of open wounds depend only on how intensively the inflammatory process develops, how badly the tissues are damaged.The task of doctors is to stimulate and control all the above stages of the wound process.
Primary treatment in the treatment of open wounds
Before the victim applies for professional medical care, it is necessary for him to thoroughly wash the wound with antiseptic means - this will be a complete disinfection of the open wound.To minimize the risk of infection of the wound during treatment, use hydrogen peroxide, furacilin, a solution of potassium permanganate or chlorhexidine.A wound around the skin is treated with greenery or iodine - this will prevent the spread of infection and inflammation.On top of the open wound after the described treatment is superimposed a sterile bandage.
It depends on how correctly the initial cleaning of the open wound was performed, the speed of its healing depends.If a patient comes to the surgeon with chopped, cut, ragged open wounds, then he must undergo specific surgical treatment.Such a deep cleaning of the wound from dead tissue and cells will accelerate the healing process.
As part of the initial treatment of an open wound, the surgeon removes foreign bodies, blood clots, excoriates uneven edges and crushed tissues.Only after this, the doctor will apply seams, which will allow the edges of the open wound to be brought together, but if the gaping wound is too extensive, the seams are superimposed a little later when the edges begin to recover and the wound to be tightened.It is compulsory after such treatment, a sterile bandage is applied to the injury site.
Note: in most cases, an open wound patient is injected with tetanus serum, and if the wound is formed after an animal bite, a rabies vaccine.
All described treatment of open wound reduces the risk of infection and development of complications( sepsis, gangrene, suppuration), accelerates the healing process.If the treatment was carried out on the first day after the injury, no complications and serious consequences are foreseen.
How to treat a clotting open wound
If an excess amount of serous fibrous exudate is present in the open wound, surgeons will take measures to treat an open, wet wound.In general, such abundant secretions have a beneficial effect on the healing rate - they also clean the open wound, but at the same time, the task of specialists is to reduce the amount of exudate release - this will improve blood circulation in the smallest vessels( capillaries).
When treating open wounds, it is important to frequently change sterile dressings.And with this procedure it is important to use a solution of furacilin or sodium hypochlorite, or treat the wound with liquid antiseptics( miramistin, okostistin and others).
To reduce the number of serous fibrosis exudates, surgeons use bandages with a 10% aqueous solution of sodium chloride.With this treatment, the dressing should be changed at least once every 4-5 hours.
A wetting open wound is also treated with antimicrobial ointments - streptocid ointment, Mafenide, Streptonitol, Fudizin gel will be most effective.They are applied either under a sterile bandage or on a swab that treats an open, wet wound.
As the drying agent used powder Xeroform or Baneocin - they have both antimicrobial properties, and antibacterial and anti-inflammatory.
How to treat an open purulent wound
It is an open purulent wound that is most difficult to treat - it is impossible to prevent the spread of purulent exudate to healthy tissues.To do this, the usual dressing turns into a mini-operation - from the wound at each treatment it is necessary to remove accumulated pus, most often install drainage systems, so that pus was provided with a constant outflow.Each treatment, in addition to these additional measures, is accompanied by the introduction into the wound of of antibacterial solutions of - for example, Dimexide.To stop the necrotic process in an open wound and remove pus from it in surgery, specific means are used - powders Trypsin or Himopsin.From these powders, a suspension is prepared by mixing them with novocaine and / or sodium chloride, and then impregnated with the resulting product with sterile wipes and refills them directly into the cavity of the open purulent wound.In this case, the dressing changes once a day, in some cases, the medicinal napkins can be left in the wound for two days.If the purulent open wound has a deep and wide cavity, then these powders are poured directly into the wound, without the use of sterile wipes.
In addition to such a careful surgical treatment of an open purulent wound, the patient must prescribe antibacterial drugs( antibiotics) inside or in the form of injections.
Features of treatment of purulent open wounds:
- After cleaning the open wound from pus, Levosin ointment is injected directly into the cavity.This drug has antibacterial, anti-inflammatory effects, as well as anesthetic.
- For medicinal dressings in the treatment of an open wound with purulent contents, you can use Levomikol ointment and Shintomycin liniment. Ointment Baneocin is most effective in the treatment of open wounds with detected staphylococcus aureus, Nitacide ointment - in the treatment of wounds with diagnosed anaerobic bacteria, Dioxydin ointment generally refers to a universal remedy - effective in most types of infections, including against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and causative agents of gangrene.
- Most often, in the treatment of open purulent wounds, surgeons use ointments based on polyethylene oxide, from vaseline / lanolin, modern medicine refuses in this case.
- Excellent helps to get rid of pus in the open wound Ointment Vishnevsky - she and infiltrates dissolves, and the blood flow in the wound strengthens.This drug is applied directly to the wound cavity 1-2 times a day.
- When treating a patient with an open purulent wound in a medical institution, immunotherapy is prescribed and detoxification therapy is performed.
- To accelerate the wound healing process, ultrasound or liquid nitrogen can be used in the hospital.
Creams and ointments for wounds at home
If the damage is insignificant, there is no large cavity, it is possible to treat such open wounds at home using various ointments. What is recommended to apply specialists:
- Salicylic ointment .This remedy is classified as antibacterial.First you need to treat the wound with hydrogen peroxide, then apply Salicylic ointment directly to the wound and cover everything with a sterile bandage.In the same way, you can use ichthyol ointment.
- Streptocide .This tool is used only for superficial damage.If there are streptocid tablets in the medicine cabinet, then they need to be crushed and covered with a wound.Many people with superficial wounds use a special medical glue BF, but this is incorrect - the treatment with this medication is mandatory.
- Balm Rescuer .When it is applied to the wound, a thin film is formed, so doctors remind that before using this balm, it is necessary to rinse the open wound with hydrogen peroxide.
- Solcoseryl .It is available in the form of an ointment - it is applied to a dry open wound, and in the form of jelly - is used in the treatment of wet open wounds.
- Heparin ointment, ointment Troxevasin, gel Dolobene .Used in the presence of bruises, extensive bruises in the place of an open wound.It is applied directly to the skin, quickly eliminates the edema and hyperemic areas.
- Cream Eplan .It is made on the basis of polyethylene glycols, has antibacterial and disinfectant properties.The use of this drug significantly reduces the risk of infection of open wounds.
Folk remedies for treatment of open wounds
If the wound is not widely spread and deep, some folk remedies can be used to accelerate its healing. The most popular, safe and effective are:
- aqueous propolis solution - excellent for wet wounds;
- decoction based on chamomile medicinal flowers, eucalyptus leaves, garden ripen branches, marigold flowers, St. John's wort, heather, elecampane, yarrow, root of ayr and comfrey;
- is a remedy for aloe juice, sea buckthorn oil and rosehip oil( mixed all in equal proportions) - effective in the treatment of shallow open and dry wounds.
Note: , before using folk remedies for the treatment of open wounds, you need to make sure that the victim is not allergic to any of these medicinal plants.
Treatment of open wounds is best entrusted to professionals - surgeons will be able to determine the beginning of the development of the infectious process in time, select effective treatment.If a decision is made to dispense with therapy at home, then it is necessary to closely monitor the condition of the victim.In case of the appearance of fever, pain in the place of damage of unexplained etiology, it is necessary to urgently seek professional medical help - it is quite possible that a dangerous infectious process is progressing in the wound.
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapist of the highest qualification category