Foreign body pharynx: symptoms, first aid, removal of foreign body
Jun 07, 2018
None of the organs or parts of the body of the human body are so vulnerable to ingress of foreign bodies as the ENT organs, in particular - the pharynx.
To date, a foreign body in the throat - a frequent phenomenon in the practice of ENT doctors and emergency medical doctors.The most susceptible to the development of this state are small children and adolescents, less often adults and people of advanced age.Contents: Description of the condition Foreign body in the pharynx: Symptoms Diagnosis of an acute condition Emergency assistance with a foreign body in the throat Prevention
Description of the condition
A foreign body in the pharynx is the ingression and stuck in the anatomical structures of an organ of foreign objects,Having different sizes and configurations.Such penetration causes a vivid clinical picture and without timely provided correct medical care can lead to suffocation and death of the patient.
Invasion of foreign objects in the throat can:
- Inattention and forgetfulness, especially in people who have a habit of keeping small items in their mouth;
- fast food intake and lack of thorough chewing, which can cause large chunks of food to enter the pharyngeal pockets;
- loud talking or laughing while eating;An attack of a cough or sneeze;
- safety and inattention of parents to their children, who are left unattended and with objects that are easily swallowed;
- poor vision and impaired coordination of movement in the elderly;
- extreme experiments of adolescents with their body;
- poor and poor-quality cooking products: their insufficient thermal treatment, the remains of small pieces of pits from meat or fish;
- work on production with substances that can worsen the conductivity of the nerves and thereby worsen the work of muscles, including those that take part in the act of swallowing;Poor
- setting of dentures or lack of teeth.
Small pieces of metal, coins, rests of children's toys, needles can get stuck in the throat of various configurations and sizes:
- wire, button;
- pieces of fruit or vegetables;
- chicken bones or their fragments;
- fish bones;
- pieces of meat or fat;Pea, grains
- less often foreign body can act as living organisms - ascarids;
Depending on the size, some items can remain in the upper respiratory tract, and others - fall into the lower parts.
In the throat there are narrow anatomical parts of the organ that can become a barrier to free passage of foreign bodies.
- palatine tonsils consisting of a loose structure fabric that forms folds;
- lingual amygdala, having an identical loose structure;
- palatine arches or lateral grooves of the pharynx;
- pear-shaped sinuses - anatomical formations of the lower throat, resembling pockets;
- the place where the pharynx passes into the larynx is the narrowest place.
Foreign body in the pharynx: symptoms of
Symptoms of foreign body entry into the pharynx largely depend on the location of the object and its size.
The jam is characterized by:
- Feeling of a lump in the throat.
- Pain sensations in the throat, which are worse when swallowing.
- Feeling of lack of air that progresses and can lead to suffocation.
- In connection with the irritation of nerve endings and their inflammation, a significant amount of saliva is reflexively released.
- If a foreign body has got into a pear-shaped sine, then when examined by a doctor, a so-called salivary lake is observed, which is provoked by a delay in saliva.
- If a stuck object is not removed for a long time, it leads to the development of inflammation or a purulent process on the side wall of the pharynx( phlegmon, abscess) or in adipose tissue of the chest cavity.Of course, the main role in the correct diagnosis of pathology is played by the patient's complaints and a description of the situation that led to the entry of a foreign object into the pharynx( in cases where the patient has not violated breathing and is conscious).
After clarifying the reasons, the otolaryngologist resorts to examination using ENT instruments.
In this case:
Pharyngoscopy - examination of the posterior pharyngeal wall and pharyngeal structures( tongue, palatine tonsils, pharyngeal tonsil, anterior and posterior arches).Laryngoscopy - performed when suspicion of an external body in the pear-shaped sinuses or in the lower parts of the pharynx.
There are situations when, despite the patient's complaints, it is impossible to detect the localization of an alien body with the help of tools.Then the ENT uses finger research, which allows you to clearly feel the embedded object.
Radiography can also be used to determine the exact location of the item.
Emergency assistance with foreign body in the throat
The external body in the throat, as a rule, should be removed by a specialist and only in aseptic conditions, in a special manipulation room. But, in those situations when the patient is threatened with suffocation and death, the surrounding people should provide the correct first aid, which will avoid death.
There are several methods that provide the removal of a foreign body:
- If you hit the ball-shaped objects in the baby's larynx, you need to turn it head down and knock the palm between your shoulderblades several times.A ball or a pea has the property of how easy it is to roll over a voice gap, and it's quite easy to roll out from there.In a similar situation, an adult needs to turn it over the stomach, throw it over the back of a chair or knee, and then strike between the shoulder blades. Important! The blows must be applied with the open palm.Such manipulations should be repeated several times, if the procedure has not ended successfully - immediately proceed to another method.
- If in the throat behind the voice slit there is an object in the form of a plate or coin, then the effect of the piggy bank is activated, in which the coin does not fall back.To provide medical assistance, you need to shake the chest, which can change the position of the object.To do this, it is necessary to stand behind the victim, put his hands on his shoulders and sharply with his chest to hit in the back.This method can be successful in 40% of cases, if it is performed by a man with a wide and flat male breasts.
- If a fish's stone or hair falls on the mucous membrane of the pharynx, edema may develop, in order to prevent this before the ambulance arrives, it is necessary to use not ice-cream slices that will cool the mucous membrane and reduce the irritation of the nerve endings.
After the patient is delivered to the department of otolaryngology,
- is anesthetized with pharyngeal mucosa using local anesthetics( eg, lidocaine);
- foreign body is grasped with special forceps or tweezers;
- in case of significant damage to the pharyngeal mucosa used for further treatment of anti-inflammatory drugs, rinsing with solutions of antiseptics;
- with the development of a bacterial infection that accompanies the ingestion of a foreign body into the pharynx, antibiotic drugs are used for treatment, and in severe cases - to surgical methods of treatment.
In order to avoid serious life-threatening conditions, it is worth remembering several rules that help save lives:
- Get rid of the bad habit of eating or chewing while traveling in transport or on the street.Any sharp external stimulus, in the form of a car's beep, can provoke a piece of food into the pharynx, which will block the flow of air.
- Do not talk or laugh with your mouth full of food.This is not only a rule of good taste, but also an opportunity to remain alive.
- Forget the habit of using the mouth as a pocket in which you can hold the needle, pin, button or other small object.
- Do not allow children to play with objects that fit easily into your mouth.
Please note! Before feeding a small child with grapes, caring parents should cut the berry along into 4 particles, which will not allow the grapes to block the patency of the upper respiratory tract in case of suppression.
For the same reasons, many manufacturers of ball-point pens make caps with holes at the end.
Human life is priceless.Knowledge of the rules of emergency care when a foreign body enters the pharynx, will save it.
Olga Doluk, medical reviewer