Nasal bleeding - causes and first aid
Jun 08, 2018
Nasal bleeding always occurs as a consequence of damage to blood vessels.This phenomenon is most often recorded in children under 10 years of age and in adults after 50 years.Doctors have identified a few dozen reasons and factors that can provoke bleeding from the nose - it's possible to establish them only with a full examination of the patient.This will be done in medical institutions, but the rules of first aid for copious nosebleeds and the principles of general assistance in such cases need to know everyone.Table of contents:
Causes of nosebleed
The most common cause of nasal bleeding is vessel fragility.Some people notice the appearance of blood from the nose even in the usual sneezing and more often such a cause is revealed when examining children under 10 years old - the body is still growing, therefore the described syndrome disappears with years.Complain of spontaneous bleeding from the nose and people with persistent high blood pressure, almost always appears this syndrome and with a nose injury.In general, medicine identifies two large groups of causes of nasal bleeding - local and systemic.
Local causes of nosebleeds
- injury to the nose;
- inflammatory processes developing directly in the nasal sinuses( sinusitis, sinusitis);
- acute respiratory infections;
- progressive tumors of benign or malignant nature in the nasal cavity;
- application of an oxygen catheter due to medical indicators;
- surgery performed in the nasal cavity or in its sinuses;
- drug use - this refers to cocaine and glue, which are inhaled precisely by the nose;
- The use of nasal sprays is not all, but some cold medicines have a negative effect on the condition of the walls of the blood vessels.
Note: does not necessarily mean that the above factors necessarily lead to the discovery of epistaxis, but they can provoke it.For example, some types of nose trauma are characterized by the absence of blood discharge, but the presence of puffiness, shortness of breath and other signs of developing pathology.
Systemic causes of nasal bleeding
In this case, the overall health and certain chronic pathological processes will influence the appearance of nosebleeds. Systemic factors capable of provoking nasal bleeding include:
- diagnosed allergy to any external or internal stimulus;
- hypertension is not a periodic increase in blood pressure, but a stable hypertension;
- alcohol consumption in large quantities and often - drinks containing alcohol, expand the vessels;
- chronic liver and heart diseases of inflammatory or infectious nature;
- long-term use of certain drugs - in this case, nosebleeds will be classified as a side effect;
- excessive physical exertion, sunstroke, overheating - bleeding from the nose in this case begins suddenly and differs for a short time;
- hormonal disorders - a similar factor applies more to women, it is not surprising that the described syndrome complaints come from pregnant women;
- infectious diseases - with measles, scarlet fever, influenza, the permeability of the walls of blood vessels increases.
In addition, nasal bleeding may be associated with changes in barometric pressure - a similar syndrome is characteristic of divers, pilots, climbers.
Classification of nosebleeds
This syndrome differentiates in medicine as anterior and posterior nasal bleeding.If a person has anterior bleeding from the nose, then one can not worry - it stops on its own( in extreme cases it will be necessary to apply the simplest methods of self-help), it is never long and does not pose a health hazard.Quite different is the nosebleed of the rear view.It occurs as a result of damage to large vessels, so much blood loss is a reality.
Important: posterior nasal bleeding never stops itself and always requires professional help.
In addition to these two main types of described syndrome, doctors differentiate and the degree of blood loss. It can be:
- light - the person practically does not feel any problems, the bleeding stops on its own and is characterized by short-term;
- average - the blood from the nose goes intensely, while the person feels slightly dizzy, there may be nausea;
- is severe - blood from the nose does not stop even after taking emergency measures, it becomes bad for a person: severe dizziness, pale skin, a sticky cold sweat appears on the floor, complaints are made about nausea.
Nasal bleeding in children
The medicine has deeply studied the nature of bleeding from the nose and isolated this syndrome, which happens in childhood into a separate category.The fact is that if a child periodically opens anterior nosebleeds, it means that he just has not yet fully formed blood vessels located in the nose.The described syndrome, which appeared for this reason, is absolutely safe - the blood stops quickly, there are no consequences or complications in the child.
For children, bleeding from the nose is associated with problems in the work of the trachea, stomach, esophagus.Parents should be alerted to the dark color of blood emerging from the nose, it will resemble ink and differ in the presence of small clots.This means that the dangerous pathology of internal organs is actively developing.
If the child has posterior nasal bleeding, it can lead to a sharp deterioration in health - weakness, pale skin, dizziness, a sharp drop in blood pressure, loss of consciousness.
Important: in some cases, the blood in the back view of the described syndrome drains into the pharynx, and the child swallows it.In this case, to detect nasal bleeding is possible only by the presence of blood in the vomit.Abundant posterior bleeding often leads to a critical loss of blood and a fatal outcome of the child.
Emergency care for nosebleeds
Both children and adults need to know the rules of first aid in the described syndrome - so it will be possible to help yourself, and the simple passer-by or neighbors, acquaintances and colleagues.
What to do with anterior nasal bleeding
First of all, you need to put or put the injured person( when lying down, the head should be slightly raised).
Please note: should not be taken very seriously, as this can lead to ingestion of blood.
Next, you need to use one of two tools:
- 3% hydrogen peroxide;
- Vasoconstrictor nasal drops( eg, Naphthysine).
These means need to moisten the cotton swab and insert into the nostril from where the blood comes( or both), the nasal passage with the swab slightly squeeze your fingers and stay in this position for a maximum of 15 minutes.You can add cold to the bridge of your nose as an additional help - even ice from the refrigerator will do.
If you do not have a first aid kit at your fingertips, then you can quickly stop non-intensive bleeding from the nose of the front view with a conventional handkerchief - moisten it in water and attach it to the bridge of the nose.
Important: in case of continuation of bleeding from the nose after the measures taken and when the blood flows out with a jet, with clots it is necessary to immediately seek medical help.
What to do with posterior nasal bleeding
In this case, specialists can not do without the help of specialists, so you need to call an ambulance and go( or send the injured) to the hospital.What in a medical institution can doctors do?
First, experts direct their actions to stop bleeding.To do this, tampons moistened with specific drugs are inserted into the nasal passages.Such tamponade can last more than 1 day.At the same time, doctors can inject haemostatic drugs, which will help speed up the process of restoring the normal functioning of the nose.
Secondly, if the above measures did not give any effect within 2 days, surgical intervention is prescribed - surgeons will coagulate to stop bleeding, restoring the integrity of the damaged vessel.It's no trouble that such an operation does not represent itself - specialists work with state-of-the-art equipment and it will not be necessary to open the nose.
Thirdly, after the provision of emergency care, a full examination of the patient will be conducted, the causes of nosebleeds will be identified and specific medications will be prescribed( for example, to strengthen the walls of blood vessels).It is much easier to undergo a course of therapy and then only follow the recommendations of the attending physician than each time to deal with blood loss.
Please note: all the above activities are carried out in medical institutions only to those patients who went to see a doctor without visible signs of deterioration of health.In all other cases, an emergency examination of the patient is carried out - ultrasound and X-ray studies will enable doctors to understand what is happening in the patient's body.
Many people try to cope with prolonged nosebleeds independently, using folk recipes. Please note that this behavior is fraught with severe consequences:
- visible bleeding may become less, in fact, blood simply flows down the throat into the esophagus and stomach;
- if the described syndrome is associated with a nasal trauma, stopping bleeding may indicate a fracture of the distant bones of the nasal sinuses, the penetration of their fragments into the skull;
- the loss of blood is so great that it can be very sad for a patient.
Nasal bleeding often turns out to be a harmless syndrome that even a child can cope with.But one should be attentive to one's own health and with a recurring syndrome( more often than once in two months) one should consult a doctor for a complete examination.Even if the bleeding is present in children and it is not intensive, the specialist's consultation does not prevent - this syndrome may indicate a banal fragility of blood vessels, but it can also be a sign of serious pathologies of internal organs.
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapeutist of the highest qualification category.