Što ako je opekline: liječenje opeklina
A sunburn is a condition that is familiar to almost everyone, because it takes just more than usual time to spend on the beach or just to get under direct sunlight and is under them for 20-30 minutes.The earlier treatment of the burn begins, the more likely it is to avoid its unpleasant consequences: the appearance of blisters, skin peeling, pigmentation spots.Table of contents: Symptoms of sunburn Classification of sunburn What can not be done with sunburn First aid for sunburn How to treat sunburn
Signs of sunburn
If a person is burned in the sun, the first signs of a burn will already manifestIn half an hour, and during the next day all typical symptoms will develop. These include:
- Redness of the skin - it can be focal or general, the skin in these areas to the touch will be hot.
- The skin in the areas affected by sunlight becomes more sensitive, swells and becomes painful.
- Blisters appear in the burn areas - they can be of different sizes, but always accompanied by intense itching.
- Body temperature rises - most often there are subfebrile indicators accompanied by chills.
- Dehydration of the body occurs - depending on the degree of sunburn this parameter can vary, in particularly severe cases dehydration leads to a shock state.
- Headache, general weakness and signs of body intoxication - nausea and vomiting may be present.
If a person has received a sunburn, then treatment should be started as soon as possible - such aggressive effects on the body can result in serious complications.
Classification of sunburns
In medicine, there is a clear classification of the condition under consideration - the 4 stages of the disease are identified:
- 1 degree - will be characterized only by reddening of the skin and absence of blisters;
- 2 degree - it is characterized by reddening of the skin, the appearance of blisters, the appearance of common symptoms of sunburn( headache, a slight increase in body temperature, general weakness);
- 3 degree - the structure of all skin is broken, 60% of the skin is damaged;
- 4 degree - a person has complete dehydration, develops kidney and heart failure, often a lethal outcome.
Very often people start to choose the methods of sunburn treatment themselves, and they are not always literate.Such careless approach to one's own health or the health of loved ones can lead to serious complications.
Do not categorically do with sunburns
If you do not know the contraindications for the condition in question, an independent solution to the problem can lead to the fact that only qualified doctors can alleviate the condition of the patient.
What not to do with sunburn:
- Wipe the burned skin with ice slices.This brings immediate relief, but the consequences can be really terrible - the death of the damaged epithelium will begin, which leads to inflammatory processes and a long period of rehabilitation.By the way, it is likely that even after treatment on the skin will be present cosmetic defects.
- You can not wash damaged skin with alkaline soap, use a scrub - such an effect on the thinning of the skin leads to the development of inflammatory processes.
- In no case can sunburns be wiped with alcohol and any alcohol-containing products - this causes a powerful dehydration, and the body suffers from dehydration.
- If the sunburn is acute, you can not treat it with medical vaseline or badger / lamb / pork fat.The fact is that these pores will be clogged, and the skin can not breathe.
- Self-piercing blisters or papules in areas of sunburn is also highly discouraged - with a probability of 98% at the site of skin damage a secondary infection will develop.
- In the acute period of the condition under consideration, tea, coffee and alcoholic beverages should not be consumed - they increase dehydration.
In addition, it is strictly not recommended, even in the recovery period after sunburn treatment, to stay in direct sunlight, in extreme cases, you need to use closed clothing.
First aid for sunburn
First aid for sunburn should be given immediately, because in the first minutes after direct and / or prolonged exposure to sunlight, the degree of harm can not be determined. What concerns the concept of first aid for sunburn:
- It is necessary to immediately hide from the sun's rays.The best option is a cool room, but in extreme cases, a shadow of a tree or a canopy on the street.
- Evaluate your own condition and do it adequately.If there is a slight dizziness, nausea, chills and headache, it is advisable to call the ambulance team - most likely, the sunburn is severe and it is complicated by a heat stroke.
- In case of a normal general condition, you need to help the body and skin integrate:
- take a cool shower( not cold!);
- in case of a local burn you can collect cool water in the basin and lower the damaged part of the body there( this method is especially convenient for burns of the extremities);
- necessarily drink a lot - this will prevent the development of dehydration, but consider that water should not be icy;
- if there is an intense pain syndrome, then an anesthetic drug is allowed - it can be, for example, ibuprofen, analgin or baralgin.
All other actions belong to the category of medical.But even if the above measures have brought relief and the condition has normalized / stabilized, do not go out into the street the next day in direct sunlight.The fact that the skin is in a stressful state, they need to recover.
How to treat sunburns
It should be remembered that you can treat sunburn yourself, but only if they are 1-2 degrees.In all other cases it is recommended to seek medical help - doctors will assess the patient's condition and select appropriate therapy. As a rule, the following drugs are prescribed for the treatment of sunburn:
- Vitamins A, E and C - they contribute to the rapid regeneration of tissues and prevent the degeneration of healthy cells into malignant cells.Usually the vitamins are taken within 10-30 days, the more accurate duration of the course will be indicated by the attending physician.
- Ibuprofen, Paracetamol( non-steroidal anti-inflammatory) - relieve puffiness, reduce the intensity of the inflammatory process and pain syndrome.The course of admission lasts the entire acute period, the drugs are taken in a dosage of 1 tablet every 4-6 hours.
- Tavegil, Cetril and other antihistamines - relieve itching and redness of the skin.Take these medications strictly according to the instructions.
Ointments, creams and sprays
It is very important to use preparations for local treatment with sunburn. These include:
This is a large group of drugs that contain panthenol.These agents accelerate the regeneration of the skin, relieve inflammation, relieve the patient of itching, have a protective and wound-healing effect.
How to apply: on areas with damaged skin Dexpanthenol is applied 2 - 4 times a day until the skin is completely restored.If there is an infection on burn foci, then before applying this medication, the focus should be treated with an antiseptic.
This product includes fish oil, a mixture of freons, lavender oil, anestezin, sunflower oil, linetol and tocopherol acetate.Aerosol has anti-inflammatory, antiseptic and analgesic effect.
How to apply: during the day you need to spray the product once directly on the lesion of the skin.Use Livian aerosol can be until complete recovery.
Ointment of Elover
Based on the name of this drug, it can be understood that the composition of the ointment includes vitamin E and aloe extract.Ointment accelerates regenerative processes in the skin, improves cellular metabolism and tissue trophism.
How to apply: 2-4 times a day, the ointment should be applied to the damaged areas of the skin with a thin layer.
Please note: Elovera Ointment is strongly contraindicated for sunburn treatment in patients under the age of 18 years.
This solution not only accelerates the healing process, but also reduces the manifestations of the inflammatory process, removes redness and fever in the affected area.In addition, when using the solution has a cooling effect - a person becomes much easier, more comfortable.
How to use: on a sterile gauze napkin Carotolin solution is applied( the napkin should be well-wetted) and applied to the places of sunburn.No bandages should be applied from above.Such lotions can be done 2-3 times a day.
Zinc ointment, Desitin and lotion Kalamin
These drugs have a drying effect, prevent the development of secondary infection in places of sunburn.Most often, these drugs are used to treat small sunburns.
How to apply: apply the drug 2-3 times a day directly to the damaged skin.
Aerosol perfectly removes inflammation, accelerates healing and greatly facilitates the patient's condition.
How to use: spray over affected parts of skin 2-3 times a day.Use this tool can be immediately after receiving a sunburn, so this aerosol should be in the medicine cabinet.
Ointment and gel Solcoseryl
The composition of these agents is complex, the main component is the deproteinized dialysate from calves' blood.Solcoseryl( and ointment, and gel) accelerates the growth of granulation tissue and promotes better collagen formation.
How to apply: Solcoseril gel is applied to sunburn 2-3 times a day, you first need to clean the wound with an antiseptic.It is the gel used before the granulation of tissues, and then you need to apply Solcoseryl ointment - it is applied 1-2 times a day to the wounds until complete healing.
Provides excellent analgesic action( local), relieves itching and swelling, when applied has a cooling effect.It is very important - this balm is immediately absorbed into the skin and leaves no traces on the clothes.
How to apply: on affected areas of the skin is applied Psilo-balm 2-3 times a day until complete recovery.The same drug helps to get rid of itching during sun exposure.
This is a biological product that significantly reduces the duration of treatment for sunburn.When applied to the skin, the patient may feel a pain that is not intense, which quickly passes.
How to use: burn areas are smeared with ointment 2-3 times a day until complete recovery.
This ointment belongs to the drugs of the hormonal group, therefore it is strictly forbidden to use it independently for the treatment of sunburns - it is necessary to receive the appointment of the attending physician.Sinaflane can reduce the intensity of itching, reduce inflammation and relieve allergic reactions.
How to use: the exact dosage and duration of Sinaflana's application will be indicated by the attending physician, but this drug is always assigned a short course.
In addition, doctors can recommend the use of other equally effective drugs:
- Flocet gel;
- Fenistil gel;
Folk remedies for the treatment of sunburns
Of course, the condition in question has a long history, therefore, there are a lot of folk methods that can alleviate the condition of the injured and accelerate the healing of affected areas of the skin.
The most effective folk treatments for sunburn:
- Wet wipe without any perfume additives.It can be applied to burns, which will bring quick relief.
- Products from the freezer compartment of the refrigerator or ice.They can not be applied directly to burns, but it is allowed to cover affected areas at a distance of 5 cm on healthy skin.This procedure will relieve fever, ease the condition and reduce pain.
- Protein of chicken eggs.It is lightly beaten and overlaid on the burn, left to dry completely and repeat the procedure.The protein reduces pain and serves as a preventative for drying the skin.
- Ryazhenka, sour cream, natural yoghurt without flavoring additives, kefir.These sour-milk products perfectly remove heat, prevent dry skin, facilitate the patient's condition.Apply sour-milk products directly to the burned skin, you can not allow them to dry out - you need to remove the napkin in time.
- Lavender oil.It is dripped onto a gauze napkin and applied to the site of skin lesions.The procedure relieves pain, has an anti-inflammatory and cooling effect.Lavender oil is quite possible to cook on your own - you need to take any vegetable oil and add to it a few drops of essential oil from lavender.
- Watermelon juice.They moisten a gauze napkin and apply to sunburn.You can use not the juice, but the pulp of watermelon.This sweet berry will relieve pain, reduce itching and relieve heat.
- Grated potato mash( carrots or pumpkin can be used).Apply the gruel directly to the affected areas of the skin, or make compresses from it.This procedure will reduce burning and pain, relieve inflammation.
- Infusion of mint leaves.For its preparation, you can use both fresh and dry leaves of the plant - they are simply poured with boiling water and insisted for 20-30 minutes.Then in the infusion wet gauze wipes and apply to the affected areas of the skin.Mint not only cool, but also prevent infection, relieve itching and redness.
- Wet clay.It is necessary to mix clay with water to a state of uniform consistency.Then the resulting mixture is applied to the wound and left to dry completely.Clay prevents the development of the inflammatory process and the appearance of blisters.
- Solution of soda.Use for its preparation baking soda in the proportion of 1 tablespoon per glass of warm water.Then gauze wipes are moistened in the solution and applied to the burned areas of the skin.The procedure will help to get rid of the feeling of tightness in the lesions, prevent the development of the inflammatory process.
Of course, the best option to protect against sunburn will be a complete refusal to stay in the sun.But this is also not an option - the body must receive the necessary dose of vitamin D. Therefore, to prevent the occurrence of sunburns, you can follow the following recommendations from doctors:
- Be sure to use a cream with protection from ultraviolet rays.
- In hot weather, you should always have a bottle of clean water( not a sweet drink, not juice, or compote!) - this will not only make you feel better in the heat, but also prevent dehydration.
- Staying in the sun should be moderate - do not be on the beach to the point of fatigue to get a "chocolate" tan, with forced long exposure to the sun - wear wide-brimmed hats.
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapist of the highest qualification category