Vooral vrouwen, kinderen en ouderen alcoholisme
Since the late 70's and early 80's of the last century, and especially in recent years, there has been a trend of growing female alcoholism.If in 1960 in the USSR for 10 men suffering from alcoholism, there was one woman( Hoffman AG), but today this figure has grown to 1 woman for 2-3 male alcoholics, that is from 10% to 30-50%.
Alas, but the real picture can be even more terrifying, as not all patients ask for help.Many drinking women try to hide the disease.Table of contents: Recommended reading:
Reasons for female alcoholism
The main reasons for women's alcoholism are:
- the changed social role of women;
- equalization of rights with men, resulting in permanent physical and mental overloads;
- financial independence;
- low cultural level;
- work in the field of "alcohol professions"( trade, especially street, small, sale of alcoholic beverages, etc.);
- moving to other countries, where a woman receives a low-skilled job, resulting in a difficult financial situation, the disruption of previous social ties, psychotrauma, depression.Many resort to "treatment" of alcohol troubles.
Note: among women who drink also increases the number of lawyers, doctors, and representatives of professions requiring mental overstrain.
Women resort to alcohol more often in case of family problems, divorce, loneliness.Often there is involvement in the drunkenness of a wife who has an alcoholic husband.A special role in the sequence of causes belongs to hereditary and family alcoholism.
Features of the development of female alcoholism
Specifics of the problem:
- the first stage of alcoholism is formed over 2-3 years;
- the second stage with the formation of the withdrawal syndrome comes 3-5 years after the development of the first and lasts also on average about 5 years;
- is more pronounced than men's degradation of personality( sexual promiscuity, indifference to the family, children, untidiness, psychopathy);
- among women with alcoholism, fewer cases of clinical remission( periods of sobriety), as well as a shorter duration of their time;
- is more complicated complications( psychosis, alcoholic hepatitis, alcoholic cardiomyopathy, encephalopathy - brain and nervous system damage);
- female psyche is more rapidly decomposed;
- treatment is difficult and less effective;
- more frequent suicide attempts.
The age of women in which the disease most often develops is limited to 30-50 years, which is 7-10 years later than men.It is noticed that earlier cases of abuse began to be noticed for women in cities.
Women have a more frequent variant of alcoholism, in which wine is mainly consumed.The amount of alcohol consumed is not less than that of men.
Female intoxication is often accompanied by aggressive actions, excitement, fights, crying and tantrums.Suicidal attempts are also more common than with male alcoholism.The nature of the patient influences the duration of euphoria.
Some women have a "hidden" alcoholism, in which the patient drinks alone or in a narrow circle of "girlfriends", trying not to attract attention.In this case, relatives find out about addiction only after a time when the disease is already in a neglected state.
Note: some researchers call female alcoholism malignant.As a rule, patients refuse the proposed treatment.
Drinking women early lose the ability to joke and humor.They rarely develop a "flat" alcoholic humor.This feature is called the early addition of hysterical manifestations of the disease.
Features of complications from internal organs in female alcoholism
Abuse of alcoholic women leads to a number of somatic complications, which differ slightly from complications in men.In this case:
- in patients twice as likely to develop alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis of the liver;
- marked a large frequency of alcoholic neuritis, pellagra( vitamin avitaminosis) and amblyopia( impaired vision);
- internal diseases occur in a more severe form.
The childbearing function is reduced.In case of onset of pregnancy in a woman suffering from alcoholism, the developing child often lags behind in development, is prone to the development of anomalies and deformities.People who drink before develop menopause and premature aging.
Features of the development of psychosis in women's alcoholism
In patients with alcoholism, women most often develop hallucinations. Recall that in men in 75% of cases there is an alcoholic delirium( white fever).At the same time, mortality from psychosis in women is lower than that of men.Also, spasmodic syndromes and encephalopathies are much less common.If the peak of psychosis in men is registered at the age of 40-44 years, then in women it falls on 45-49 years.
Social consequences of female alcoholism
Some results of alcohol abuse in women are more severe than in men, others are smoothened.Let's consider them in more detail:
Distinctive features of the consequences of alcoholism in women:
- earlier disqualification in their specialty;
- , women previously have to deal with unskilled labor;
- quickly lose their jobs;
- is more common in suicidal attempts;
- craving for alcohol is formed more slowly;
- hangover syndrome develops faster;
- in the II stage of alcoholism, smaller doses of alcohol are used;
- is less common with a combination of alcoholism and medication that causes alcohol to be potentiated in the body;The
- retains situational control for longer;
Note: abusing a woman tells about herself much less to a doctor than a man.Frankness in a conversation is not achieved in all cases.
Treatment of female alcoholism is recognized by doctors-narcologists all over the world a very difficult task.Patients are much less likely to agree and want to be treated than men who drink.After the therapy, the light intervals( remissions) are shorter.
But, if the drinking woman decides to be treated independently, and not under the pressure of external factors, then the results of therapy are much better.
Narcologists note the need for longer hospitalization of clinic patients and a significant adjustment with psychotropic drugs.
Among the psychotherapeutic techniques, preference is given to individual pursuits.
For more information on female alcoholism and its peculiarities, you will receive by viewing this video review:
Alcoholism in the childhood( adolescent-youth) period
The first acquaintance with alcohol most often occurs in adolescence, sometimes earlier.
Children quickly become addicted.Thirst for alcohol is more pronounced than in adults.Abuse of alcohol very much inhibits physical and mental development.Early infringements of heart, a liver appear.The central and peripheral nervous system suffers.Drinking children develop psychopathy, dramatically weakening memory and mental abilities.Practically all adolescents have criminal tendencies.
In recent years, there has been a sharp upsurge in children's alcoholism.He is called by the wide propaganda of alcoholic beverages and permissiveness.A particularly negative role is played by beer and low-alcohol products.
The occurrence of alcoholism in childhood is facilitated by:
- received craniocerebral trauma;
- problems of physical underdevelopment of the child;
- mental ailments - a dream with nightmarish dreams, bedwetting, stuttering, etc.;
- pathology of the intellect - dementia( oligophrenia);
- , there is a strong accentuation of personality and psychopathy.
The motivation for alcoholism in children and adolescents is as follows:
- desire to experience a cheerful mood;
- boredom, doing nothing;
- imitation of adults, self-affirmation;
- attracting the attention of others;
- attempts to smooth out shyness.
Note: separately should be noted family alcoholism, in which the child accustoms to alcohol on the example of his parents.An important reason for the development of child and adolescent alcoholism may be getting a child under the influence of an informal group.
Doses of alcohol, which in adults cause minor disturbances, in children and adolescents can cause serious poisoning and complications.
Teens drink wine more often, young men try to move to stronger drinks.
Drinking alcohol is more common in companies.Forms of intoxication often changed, unpredictable, with affective and psychopathic reactions, impulsive actions.Doses consumed in such companies usually range from 400 to 800 ml of wine per person, or 200-300 ml of vodka.Individuals may experience stunted( co-infected) states with memory failures.
The formation of alcoholism depends on age - the earlier a child begins to drink, the more compressed the timing of the onset of painful predilection.On the average, alcoholism is formed within 2-4 years.
The form of use most often represents a one-day drinking party, a part - a multi-day drunkenness.Such teenagers can come drunk to school, drive drinking companions home.
The first stage proceeds very quickly, usually within a year, and in most cases narcologists have to deal with the second stage, when bouts begin to appear in the clinic of the disease.
In recent years, complications of alcoholism among adolescents associated with the use of drugs and drugs that cause substance abuse have become more frequent.
Very early in teenage alcoholics there are changes in character.In one part, there is an increase in explosiveness and gloominess, dislike of people, in the second - pronounced cynicism, carelessness and swagger in behavior.Alcoholic humor, emotional response is almost completely absent in patients of young children.
Neurological complications in alcoholism of childhood are extremely rare.
Acute psychosis according to C. M. Rosenberg is observed in 30-35% of patients.
Mortality from alcoholism in adolescence and adolescence is highest in relation to other age categories.Desocialization in these patients occurs very quickly.Children drop out of school, commit offenses and crimes, about half of young patients commit suicide attempts and real suicides.
As we can see, the development of alcoholism in children, adolescents and young men is most often galloping, malignant.Summarizing the description of child and adolescent alcoholism, let's outline its main features:
- accelerated development and flow;
- insufficient expression of many symptoms of "classic" alcoholism of adults;
- difficulty in determining the stages;
- suppression of psychological features of a person with morbid manifestations.
Alcoholism in the elderly
There are two types:
- alcoholism at a late age in individuals who started drinking in youth or in middle age;
- alcoholism of late age in people who have received the disease already, being elderly.
Features of alcoholism development in the elderly:
- resistance to alcohol doses and cravings become lower;
- a large number of concomitant diseases;
- binges are short and appear much less often;
- prolonged hangover syndrome( 5-7 days longer) with predominance of complaints from internal organs;
- formation of mental and physical senility - "dementio alcoholico-senilis"( Forel)
Regularly drinking alcohol after 50 years rarely gives symptoms of mental dependence, although in some cases the opposite result is a very fast-paced addiction.
In the elderly, there are combinations of alcoholism and schizophrenia, epilepsy, psychosis, accompanied by a very diverse and specific clinical picture and manifestations.These are very severe manifestations of mixed pathology.
Alexander Lotin, medical reviewer, narcologist