Osteoporosis - causes, symptoms, principles of treatment
Osteoporosis is a disease of the bones, which is characterized by their increased fragility.This is due to lack of calcium in the body in general and in the bone system in particular, which in turn is provoked by metabolic disturbances.People diagnosed with osteoporosis are constantly putting their health at risk - even a simple stumbling and punching the door / table / bedside table can lead to bone fracture.Situations that are common to a healthy person can be a potential threat to patients with osteoporosis.Table of contents: Causes of osteoporosis Development Types of osteoporosis Degrees of development of osteoporosis
Causes of osteoporosis development
Statistically, osteoporosis is more often diagnosed in women - especially if there is a hormonal failure or a woman entered the climacteric period.To provoke the development of the disease in question, there can be long-term smoking experience, and regular disorders of the diet, and the abuse of alcoholic beverages.For the elderly, the risk of osteoporosis is poor absorption of calcium and other nutrients.But still, most often, osteoporosis is a consequence of metabolic disorders, in particular the imbalance of the hormonal background.It is known that fluctuations of the hormonal background occur more often in women - menstruation, artificial termination of pregnancy, pregnancy and childbirth, menopause and menopause.In the elderly, natural changes occur in the body, the bones become less strong, but some people undergo similar changes in their young years.
- Mongoloid / Europoid human race - according to statistics, African Americans almost never get osteoporosis( diagnosis is so rare that it is not taken into account even when calculating global values).
- Weakened or weakened bones of the skeleton - this may be due to congenital diseases or acquired pathologies.
- The age of a person is more than 65 years - it is during this period that there is a natural loss of calcium by the body, which can only be partially replenished.
- Hereditary / genetic factor - osteoporosis can be a hereditary disease, but not always.At the same time, the level of intimacy of kinship does not play any role at all.
- Affiliation to the female sex - hormonal fluctuations throughout the woman's life lead to osteoporosis in 87% of cases.
In addition to specific reasons for the development of osteoporosis, doctors also identify some of the risk factors.They need to be known to everyone in order to be able to withstand the progress of the disease in question. Such factors include:
- disturbances in the digestive system;
- development of pancreatic dysfunction;
- abnormalities in the operation of the ovaries, their removal;
- menopause in a woman;
- absence in the diet of foods rich in vitamin D and calcium;
- long-term use of drugs from the hormone group;
- regular abuse of alcoholic beverages;
- long-term smoking;
- long-term therapy with corticosteroid and anticonvulsants;
- any diseases of endocrine glands;
- disorders in the work of the adrenal glands.
Types of osteoporosis
Medicine distinguishes three main types of the disease under consideration. Each of them has its own reasons for development:
- Senile osteoporosis - occurs against the backdrop of a lack of calcium, in old age and with a decrease in the rate of formation of new cells of bone tissue.Senile osteoporosis is diagnosed in the elderly at the age of 70 years and older, and in women it is always accompanied by postmenopausal syndrome.
- Secondary osteoporosis - this type of disease accounts for only 5% of cases.All of them are connected either with the existing other ailment, which negatively affects the state of the bone system, or with the prolonged use of certain medications.
- Idiopathic osteoporosis - it is also called youth, because the diagnosis of the disease occurs at the youngest age, up to the newborns.The reasons for the development of this type of the disease under consideration have not yet been studied.
Degrees of development of osteoporosis
Doctors consider three degrees of development of osteoporosis, which are directly related to the severity of the course of the disease.
Physicians find a decrease in bone density, an x-ray reveals the striation of the silhouette of the spine and the transparency of the radiographic shadow.It is noteworthy that the primary degree of osteoporosis can be diagnosed only in the course of a preventive examination of the patient - it is asymptomatic.
During this period of development of the considered disease, a marked decrease in the degree of bone density is observed, a specific( biconcave) form of the vertebrae and deformation of the wedge shape of some vertebrae are revealed on the X-ray examination.The peculiarity of moderate osteoporosis is a person experiencing severe pains in bones, joints and muscles.
X-ray examination clearly shows the pronounced transparency of the vertebrae.During this period of development, osteoporosis is already too noticeable without any additional examinations.
Symptoms of osteoporosis
The disease under consideration is very dangerous because it is asymptomatic for a long time - a person does not even suspect that pathological processes occur / develop in his body. It is worth paying attention to the following signs of osteoporosis:
- Appearance at night of seizures in the lower limbs - they have nothing to do with physical overwork or uncomfortable posture during sleep.
- Back pain - it is never constant, it is characterized by periodicity and varying degrees of intensity.
- Disturbances in the work of the gastrointestinal tract - this is due to severe deformations of the vertebrae, which literally "press" on the internal organs, compressing them.
- Constant fatigue - this indicates a violation of metabolic processes, a decrease in the rate of recovery of body forces.
- Development of diabetes mellitus - it is mandatory for primary signs of this disease to consult a specialist about the detection of early signs of osteoporosis.
- Health problems of the oral cavity - too much plaque is formed on the teeth, the stomatitis and periodontitis may periodically burst out.
- Allergic reactions to previously habitual products / irritants occur.
- Nail plates on hands and feet become brittle, their delamination is noted.
In addition, some people with a diagnosis of osteoporosis begin to suddenly turn gray, note a heart palpitations - these symptoms are rare, but are found.There are a number of signs of the disease under consideration, which it is simply impossible to ignore. These include:
- a constant sense of gravity in the area between the blades;
- curvature of the spinal column;
- frequent fractures of large and small bones;
- general weakness in the muscles;
- growth is decreasing.
The above signs indicate that osteoporosis is severe, is an irreversible process.In this case, the patient can be helped only by stabilizing the general state of health, stopping the progression of the disease.
Osteoporosis of the hip joint
Doctors consider a separate type of osteoporosis of the hip joint, although the causes of the appearance of this disease are identical to all other forms / species.This manifestation of pathology negatively affects the condition of the femoral neck - according to statistics in the elderly, fractures occur precisely in this part of the bone system. Fracture of the femoral neck in old age often results in complete immobilization or fatal outcome.Modern medicine can offer hip arthroplasty in the case of diagnosing osteoporosis at an early / middle stage of development.
Principles of osteoporosis treatment
Osteoporosis is treated with medication.And, the doctor should select the scheme of prescriptions of concrete preparations in an individual order. For example:
- if osteoporosis is diagnosed in a woman in the menopause, she will be assigned hormonal drugs;
- in the case of the development of the considered disease in the elderly, it is advisable to appoint nutritional supplements with a high content of calcium and vitamin D.
Absolutely all patients will be prescribed a special diet, exercise therapy, massages.Of course, any power loads should be minimal - only a specialist will be able to select an adequate program of occupations taking into account the degree of fragility of bones. Important: Osteoporosis can not be cured completely - you will have to learn to live with this ailment.At the same time, periodically hold therapeutic measures, take prescribed medications and strictly adhere to the diet is necessary - it normalizes the general health, helps to slow the progression of osteoporosis.
Treatment of osteoporosis with folk remedies
Note: all recipes for the treatment of osteoporosis from the category of traditional medicine are not a panacea.The disease in question necessarily implies the observation of the patient in the doctors, the passage of drug treatment.Nevertheless, it is possible and necessary to use traditional medicine to strengthen the bone system and improve life, but only after consulting with the attending physician.
For diagnosed osteoporosis, one mummy should be consumed twice a day. In this case it is necessary to remember:
- the ball of the mummy must be identical in size to the match head;
- the mummy must be dissolved in 50-70 ml of water;
- is consumed 20 minutes before meals;
- treatment course is 20 days.
If necessary, the treatment course can be repeated up to 5 times a year, but with interruptions of 2-3 weeks between them.
It is necessary to squeeze out juice from 10 lemons and pour 6 chicken eggs.In this condition, the eggs are left for a while, just do not forget to cover them with a towel.After 7 days the eggs dissolve together with the shell - it's time to add 150 ml of cognac and 300 g of honey to them.Everything is thoroughly mixed and stored in a dark but warm place.Scheme of reception of egg-lemon means: one dessert spoon after each meal.Please note: is contraindicated for the treatment of osteoporosis in people with diagnosed gastric diseases( gastritis, ulcer) and liver.
Balm from senile osteoporosis
If the examined disease is diagnosed in old age and the cause of its development are natural senile processes, then traditional medicine recommends regularly using a healing balm.The recipe of preparation: mix 300 ml of the tincture of the mountaineer of the bird, 400 ml of the tincture of the field horsetail and 300 ml of the tincture of the common pikulnik.Scheme for taking balsam: one dessert spoon 30 minutes before meals.When osteoporosis in old age is useful to drink a tincture of walnuts - 500 ml of alcohol / vodka put 10 pieces of green walnuts, infused for 10 days.Tincture on a tablespoon is taken 1 time a day before meals.
When the disease under consideration is already accompanied by severe pain, compresses can be made - a dry comfrey medicinal( crushed practically into powder) is added to the dimexide tincture.Compresses are superimposed on joints, lower back.
Treatment of osteoporosis with green cocktails Butenko
This method of treatment of osteoporosis does not imply a rejection of the usual food - it is just necessary to actively introduce green cocktails into the diet. What is their advantage:
- Have a significant nutritional value - green cocktails contain 60% of fruits and 40% of greens, which is an ideal balancing of nutrients.
- The assimilation of the green cocktail by the body is maximum - these drinks are made by grinding the components in a blender.
- The drink has no contraindications to use( not including severe allergic reactions to certain types of products), does not cause side effects.
- Any green cocktail contains the maximum amount of calcium.
How to prepare green cocktails
To make a useful drink you need a blender, and it is better to buy a more powerful unit - you need to grind the coarse fiber. To prepare a classic green cocktail, you need to use 60% fruit and 40% greens.Note that this proportion may seem inedible - many simply do not perceive the taste of a green cocktail.In this case, you can increase the proportion of fruits - for example, to introduce into the drink 80% of fruits and only 20% of greenery.But with each prepared cocktail you need to "move" the proportions of the components to the classical version.Components in the cocktail can be taken absolutely any.But it is recommended to first use fruit of soft consistency - for example, bananas or persimmon.Apples and pears are best introduced into the green cocktail gradually - they make the drink sour for taste.It is advisable to take a glass of green cocktail in the morning, instead of breakfast.But in general, the number of cocktails used during the day is not limited.
Products rich in calcium
In green cocktails you need to take those foods that are rich in calcium. The optimal choice will be:
- Leaf cabbage - this plant is generally considered a champion in calcium content.You can buy it in supermarkets, but you can grow it in the garden or on the windowsill.To prepare a green cocktail with cabbage, you can take 5 leaves of the plant, 4 pears, a small bundle of mint and 500 ml of water.Everything is mixed in a blender and drunk during the day.If you want to make a more acidic cocktail, then pears can be easily replaced with apples, and mint - with lemon juice in a small amount.
- Bottle turnips - in one cup of the cocktail will contain up to 250 mg of calcium.To make a useful drink, you can use 1-2 handfuls of turnip leaves, 5-6 large peaches and 500 ml of water.The scheme of reception is the same - a received cocktail to drink during the day.
- Chinese cabbage - the content of calcium in it is small, but it actively helps to fight osteoporosis in the green cocktail.To make a drink you need to take a handful of cabbage, 2 mango and 500 ml of water.If desired, mango can be replaced with persimmons or peaches.
- Cabbage Kale is a rare kind of cabbage, so for the use of a healthy green cocktail it will need to be grown on a garden or a window sill.And mix it in a cocktail with strawberries( 150 g for 2 handfuls of cabbage) or a pair of bananas, or you can cook it all together.
Remember that high in calcium have sesame seeds( fried), spinach, dates, lemon balm and others.In principle, for cooking, you can use absolutely any combination of fruits and greens - it is important to withstand only the proportions.Green cocktails not only help to strengthen bones with already developing osteoporosis, but also serve as a preventive maintenance for this disease.
Diet for osteoporosis
Even if the disease in question was diagnosed at an early stage of development, the patient underwent full-fledged drug treatment and uses drugs from the category of traditional medicine, it is necessary to adhere to a diet at all times. Patients with diagnosed osteoporosis should be excluded from the diet:
- carbonated beverages that contain caffeine in their composition - for example, the famous energy industry;
- margarine, mayonnaise and any fatty sauces - it is better to replace them with sour cream or olive oil / mustard sauce and balsamic vinegar;
- lamb and beef fat - when consuming meat of these species you need to choose lean pieces;
- any products from cocoa beans and coffee;
- alcoholic beverages;
- sugar - it can be replaced with honey;
Doctors recommend reducing to the minimum possible the consumption of non-refined vegetable oil and melted cream.In addition, it is necessary to limit the consumption of protein products - it is allowed not more than 200 grams per day.Since osteoporosis occurs against the background of metabolic disorders, it is necessary to limit the intake of sodium into the body - this will allow normalizing water-salt metabolism. For example, it is better to abandon:
- sausages, sausages and any ready-made meat products;
- fast food;
- semi-finished products;
- chips / crackers;
- marinades and pickles.
In general, the diet for osteoporosis is diverse.There is a certain list of allowed products, which must be of high quality and prepared in a gentle way. The permitted products for osteoporosis include:
- Fish.It is necessary to introduce into the diet both river and sea fish, since they have different compositions.Do not fry it, it is better to boil it, cook it for a couple or put out.
- Seafood.Shrimp, mussels, octopus, squid - these representatives of the marine world in their chemical composition have a fairly high amount of calcium.In extreme cases, you need to regularly eat sea kale - it is still rich in iodine.
- Vegetables.All kinds of vegetables are allowed for consumption, including tomatoes, zucchini, pumpkin.If you like fried vegetables, then use a grill for this, and cook stews from vegetables better with the minimum amount of vegetable oil.
- Eggs.You can eat both chicken and quail eggs - they will be equally useful to people with osteoporosis.
- Dairy products.There are no doubts about it - kefir and cottage cheese, sour cream and cream, whey and ryazhenka are characterized by high calcium content.But you should pay attention to the fat content of products - it should be low.
- Meat of all kinds.It is very useful to introduce in the diet of a patient with osteoporosis rabbit and turkey.
- Greens and leafy types of vegetables.
- Fruits, berries of absolutely all kinds.
- All kinds of nuts and seeds.
- All kinds of mushrooms.According to scientific research, the highest content of calcium is found in white fungi.
- Macaroni products.
- Refined vegetable oils.
Despite such a wide range of approved products, patients should be consulted by the attending physician about adjusting the daily menu.The fact is that it is necessary to identify individual intolerance to certain types of food.For example, some people can not eat milk in their pure form - in this case, it can be completely replaced by sour milk products or soy milk. Rules for eating food as part of a diet for osteoporosis:
- a day should be at least 5 meals;
- , the break between meals should not exceed 3, 5 hours;
- it is impossible to arrange a mono-diet - for example, the whole day there are only dairy products or vegetables;
- it is better to eat food prepared at home;
- snacks in the cafe replace yogurt and fresh fruit( apple, banana);
- can not combine meat and cereals in one dish;
- you can safely eat meat along with vegetables.
Exceptionally, the diet will not give good results - it should be only one component in the treatment of osteoporosis.The disease under consideration is quite complex and dangerous.But this does not mean that you need to despair, go to bed and limit the movement as much as possible to avoid spontaneous fractures of bones.On the contrary, moderately active way of life, adequate physical load, medicinal treatment, diet and traditional medicine will help restore body strength, prolong the joy of motor activity. Yana Tsygankova, medical reviewer, therapeutist of the highest qualification category.