Bursitis - symptoms, causes of development and methods of treatment
Inflammatory process in synovial bags is classified by medicine as bursitis.This disease belongs to the category of pathology of the musculoskeletal system, it is considered quite complex and dangerous - problems with qualitative movement in the development of inflammatory processes are guaranteed.Table of contents: Types of bursitis Causes of bursitis development Symptoms of bursitis How is bursitis diagnosed Methods of treatment of bursitis
Types of bursitis
The main classification of the examined disease considers two forms of its course - acute and chronic. They differ only in the intensity of the pain and the duration of the flow:
- acute bursitis - always appears suddenly, begins with an acute attack of pain, increased body temperature, severe weakness, restriction of movement at the site of pathology;
- chronic bursitis - pains occur constantly, the patient often becomes accustomed to them, regularly takes painkillers.
There is also a more extended classification of bursitis:
- Depending on the cause of the occurrence.Bursitis can be infectious / septic or traumatic.In the first case, the infection in the body can penetrate from the outside or from the inside - for example, through wounds on the skin or through lymph.
- Depending on the place of injury.The question is which joint is the site of the localization of the inflammatory process:
- heel( it is also called Achillespiration);
- wrist band;
- Depending on the location of synovial bags.Bursitis can be:
- Depending on the nature of the exudate formed in the inflamed synovial bag.Bursitis can be serous, purulent, hemorrhagic.
Causes of bursitis development
The most common cause of bursitis development is injury to a particular place - bruise, stroke, abrasion.The second most frequent cause of the development of the disease under consideration is an internal infection: osteomyelitis, furuncles, carbuncles and others. But there is also a separate list of reasons:
- regular mechanical overstrain of the joint - for example, constant lifting / wearing heavy weights, walking on high heels, wearing uncomfortable / narrow shoes;
- systematic violations of metabolic processes;
- is an allergic reaction to any stimulus;
- injuries of the patella and tendons;
- abnormal skin changes associated with other diseases;The excess of calcium in the body is
- any inflammatory diseases of a chronic nature.
Symptoms of bursitis
The most important symptom of this disease is swelling in the problem area.Moreover, the swelling has a rounded shape, elastic consistency, clear boundaries. In addition, the doctors distinguish other signs of the developing disease:
- Pain syndrome - patients note aching, pulsating, strong pain, intensifying at night.
- Joint contracture.It is about the limited movement in a sick place, which is due to a strong pain syndrome( the patient is simply afraid to move because of the fear of causing another bout of pain), swelling.
- Hyperemia of the skin in places of localization of the inflammatory process( reddening).
- In the place of development of bursitis begins to accumulate fluid, there is pronounced edema.
Since bursitis is inflammatory, it is natural to develop common symptoms:
- general weakness, accompanied by drowsiness;
- headaches and dizziness;
- nausea and vomiting - infrequently, but such symptoms are noted;
- increased body temperature;
- enlargement of closely located lymph nodes.
How is bursitis diagnosed
The patient usually visits a doctor for severe pain in affected areas and swelling.But this does not give a reason for a specialist to immediately diagnose bursitis - you will need to conduct a full examination. The list of diagnostic measures includes:
- Interrogation of the patient for the prescription of the appearance of disturbing symptoms, intensity and time of day of the most active manifestation;
- visual inspection of the patient - the doctor will note the redness of the skin in the lesion and localized swelling;
- Radiographic examination - the image shows fluid accumulation;
- ultrasound examination;
- computed tomography - not only confirms the presence of the inflammatory process and fluid in the synovial bag, but will also reveal the extent of pathology;
- puncture of inflamed synovial bag and extraction of fluid for laboratory examination;
- knee endoscopy;
- the general or common analysis of a blood - the raised or increased quantity or amount of leucocytes, accelerated ESR will specify on an inflammatory process available in an organism;
- angiography of blood vessels - the doctor will determine the boundaries of inflammation.
Note that some bursitis species have symptoms and survey results that are identical to other diseases.Very often doctors mistakenly diagnose arthritis or synovitis.In this case, more narrow specialists are invited to be consulted, who will clarify the diagnosis with simple tests. Sample tests :
- the patient should put his hand behind his head, imitating combing his hair;The
- patient is asked to walk on his haunches.
These two very simple tests people with progressive bursitis can not pass.
Methods of treatment of bursitis
If the patient is diagnosed with acute bursitis, the most important thing is to provide him with complete rest.In the case of bursitis in the shoulder or elbow joint, the doctor prescribes the imposition of a gypsum langa.With bursitis, pain is always present, which can disappear within a few hours after the dressing / fixation of the joint, but you can also take painkillers - they are picked up by the attending physician on an individual basis.
Modern medicine implies treatment of the disease in question on an outpatient basis.Appointments are reduced to the course of antibacterial therapy( antibiotics suppress the inflammatory process), the use of drugs that strengthen immunity. The physiotherapeutic procedures play an important role in the treatment of bursitis:
- shock wave therapy;
- electrophoresis using a variety of drugs;
- ultraviolet irradiation;
- applications with paraffin.
Physiotherapeutic measures activate metabolic processes in the body, relieve edema and prevent stagnation.
Any treatment methods can not be taken in an independent mode - even specific physiotherapy procedures should be prescribed by a specialist.
Surgical treatment: bursitis operation
Surgical intervention is advisable to conduct only in severe chronic bursitis, when the patient already has a deposit of calcium salts.In this case, the focus of inflammation( bursa) is opened, cleaned, cut out the formed adhesions and treats the cavity with an antiseptic solution.In some situations, the mucous part of the bursa is surgically removed, if the disease is too neglected and there is a risk of disability of the patient, they can completely remove the bursa.
Important: , many people in the household recommend that you open the site of inflammation( at least pierce with a thick needle) and drain the accumulated fluid by yourself.This can not be done categorically!Do not forget that the infection spreads through the body very quickly and with such independent interventions, the diagnosis of sepsis is almost guaranteed.
Please note: can not be trusted in treating bursitis exclusively for folk remedies.It is necessary to pass a survey of specialists, get the prescription of medications and strictly follow them.And only as an auxiliary means you can use folk methods.
Here are the most common recipes:
- Take a sheet of white cabbage, discard with the uncombined side of the thickening knife and attach to the diseased joint( knee, elbow), having previously smeared the affected skin with vegetable oil.This peculiar compress should be fixed with a bandage and worn for at least 4 hours in a row.
- Pick 3 large leaves of the Kalanchoe plant, put them in the refrigerator for the night, but do not freeze.In the morning, pour boiling water and extract juice from them - you can simply chop a part of the plant.The resulting remedy is applied to the sore spot in the form of a compress, which needs to be changed every hour( so prepare more leaflets from the evening).Duration of the procedure - 3 days, at night compress is not put.
- Buy a bottle( 50 ml) of pharmacy bile in a pharmacy, add it to 500 ml of alcohol or vodka, send a glass of horse chestnuts and three sheets of finely chopped aloe.All carefully mix and send the remedy for 10 days in a warm, but dark place - let it persist.Then soak the linen rag with a product, attach it to a sore spot and warm it with a scarf, a handkerchief.The procedure is carried out daily for 10 days( once a day for 30 minutes), then a break for 7 days and, if necessary, the course is repeated.
Bursitis is a fairly common disease, not only among athletes( this is a professional disease for this category of people), but for everyone else.To treat this disease is absolutely necessary, because it quickly acquires a chronic form of the flow.Therapy for bursitis of any kind is a long process that can not be interrupted even with visible improvements in well-being.Only in this case it will be possible to avoid surgical intervention and completely get rid of the inflammatory process.
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapeutist of the highest qualification category