Injuries to the hip and hip joint: first aid
The thigh is located between the hip joint and the knee joint from the bottom.Directly in the thickness of the thigh muscles passes the femur, which is the largest in the human body.The femur is surrounded by muscle groups, which are responsible for movements in the hip joint and flexion of the tibia.Under the inguinal fold( in the upper part) there is a vascular-neural bundle, here is a group of lymph nodes.Between the muscles in front you can see a depression that goes down and inside - just in this place there are large vessels.
Injuries to the femoral tissues and a number of located hip joints are considered serious, threatening bleeding, impairment of the nerves and muscles.Table of contents: Soft tissue damage
Soft tissue injuries
Soft tissue injuries are divided into closed( without damage to the skin) and open( the integrity of the skin is damaged).There may be a bruise of the femoral tissues, their rupture or squeezing.
The hip injury occurs with a strong mechanical effect of a blunt object.Such a trauma is characterized by soreness, swelling and difficulty walking.The main symptom of a hip injury is a hemorrhage under the skin( bruise / hematoma), which appears specifically at the site of the injury.In some cases, the hematoma can be formed after 1-2 days and at some distance from the injury site.Doctors know cases when blood accumulates in the deep layers of the femoral muscles and is accompanied by pain in the leg, increased tissue density, a feeling of bursting and numbness in the skin.If there was a severe bruise, extensive, then the development of the necrotic process is possible, which provokes the poisoning of the body by the products of decay.
Note: with a bruised thigh can be damaged by nerves, veins and arteries.It all depends on how intense the mechanical impact was.
Treatment of a hip injury that has a minor degree consists in applying a cold bandage to the site of the injury - it can be a wet towel or an ice pack.It is advisable to apply a pressure bandage, which is superimposed so that blood circulation in the thigh is not disturbed.The injured person should be at rest.
If the bruise of the hip is significant, there is severe bruising, trauma to the skin and surrounding muscles, then the injured person must apply a splint and immediately seek qualified medical care.
A sudden strong movement or a sharp blow to the thigh( this can happen, for example, while playing football) can cause a rupture of the tendon sheath, fascia, the formation of a hernia.A rupture is always accompanied by a hemorrhage.If the damage is easy, the treatment consists in applying cold, applying a pressure bandage and ensuring the rest of the injured limb.If there is a complete rupture of the muscles or fascia, then surgical treatment is performed, so immediately after the injury, the tire should be applied and as soon as possible to seek qualified medical care.
If a squeezing of the tissues occurs during a hip injury, then, with its duration of several hours, a prolonged compression syndrome may develop.If this syndrome "works" on both sides of the hip for 8 hours or more, then often there is a lethal outcome.This development is due to the ingress of the decomposition products of dead muscles into the blood, which leads to disruption of the kidneys, acute renal failure occurs.A similar situation can arise during an anthropogenic disaster or a natural disaster.After the victim is removed from the rubble, an elastic bandage is applied to the injured limb, then it is sewed and sent to the hospital in an emergency order.
Open hip injuries are accompanied by blood loss.If the wound is small, then a bandage dressing is used: the upper corner of the kerchief is tied to the belt( belt), and the free ends of the scarf are placed around the limb.The patient needs to ensure complete rest and be taken to a medical institution for primary surgical treatment.
Venous bleeding is intense, the blood is dark and comes from the wound constantly.With such bleeding, a pressure bandage is fixed on the thigh, and the trunk is raised and raised( thigh).The victim with venous bleeding should be urgently taken to the doctor - he will need surgical treatment.
Arterial bleeding is considered the most dangerous to human life.You can stop it only in one way: press the artery with your finger to the intermuscular groove or under the inguinal fold, apply a rubber hemostatic tourniquet.If there is no special harness, then it can be replaced with a belt, rope, belt.Be sure to attach a note with a precise indication of the time of application of the bundle.The victim should be immediately hospitalized.
Please note: can be applied for 2 hours in the summer time, in winter - a maximum of one and a half.At the end of the specified period, it is necessary to remove the tourniquet, allow the blood to enter the limb, and apply it again.Each time the rope is removed / put on the accompanying note, a new time of the procedure is added.
Fractures of the hip
Symptoms of this injury, as well as the principles of first aid, are variable - it all depends on which part of the thigh there was a fracture.
Fracture of the upper bone near the joint
With this injury, there is no intense pain, the limb turns outward and it turns out that the little finger touches the bed on which the patient is.In some cases, the damaged limb becomes shorter by a few centimeters.Such trauma often occurs in the elderly.
First aid for a fracture of the upper part of the bone near the joint: straighten the deployed leg in no case impossible!It is necessary to ensure complete immobility of the damaged limb - for example, to apply a tire.The patient should not rely on the injured limb or sit down.
Fracture of the body of the bone( diaphysis)
The site of the injury appears pain and swelling of the skin.There is an unnatural mobility of the limb, and if the fragments move, the leg can shorten to 6 cm.
First aid in breaking the bone: it is absolutely necessary to ensure complete immobility of the limb, so that the bone does not move while transporting the injured person and does not injure nerves and blood vessels.When moving, the victim may experience an anaphylactic shock, so it is better not to experiment with others, but immediately call an ambulance team.
Fracture of the hip in the lower part of the
Characterized by intense pain and unnatural mobility above the knee.To rise on the damaged limb the person can not, to him painfully even simply to move.
First aid for a hip fracture in the lower part: the injured person should be immediately put on a solid stretcher( this could be a door or just a skate board), and a broken leg should be bent at the knee and a roll placed under it.It is in this position during transportation that there will be no compression of nerves and vessels.The limb, exposed in the recommended position, must be securely secured - for example, by attaching to a healthy leg.
Open fractures of the thigh
In such injuries, bone fragments break through the skin and are accompanied by bleeding.In some cases, the loss of blood is not strong, but in most cases the bleeding is intense, which can lead to the development of shock.Open fractures of the hip can be accompanied by complications such as bone marrow and bone disease( osteomyelitis), sepsis or infection.
First aid for an open fracture of the thigh: it is necessary to quickly stop bleeding and apply a sterile bandage.If "at hand" there is no first aid kit, the wound should be simply covered with a clean cloth.In the presence of a first aid kit, it is highly desirable to inject the patient with an anesthetic.Immediately after the injury it is necessary to call the ambulance team - the victim is shown an urgent hospitalization.
Hip joint damage
If there is a hip joint injury, the patient will be disturbed by a small swelling, bruising and unintentional pain.With such a trauma, the mobility in the joint remains unchanged.To treat a bruise, you must apply cold to the site of the injury, before the symptoms disappear completely, you must keep your foot and do not step on it, using a cane or crutches.
Severe injury is a dislocation or intra-articular fracture.The leg in this case can be deployed outside, the victim can not lift it, and when trying to make any movement the pain in the hip joint sharpens sharply.In some cases, patients can move around( this happens when punctured fractures), but this should not be done.If a fracture occurred in the area of the trochanter, an extensive bruise may form throughout the upper third of the thigh.First aid for a dislocation or intra-articular fracture is the imposition of a tire and the immediate hospitalization of the victim.
A dislocation in the hip joint is considered extremely rare.Such a pathology can occur when falling from a height or in a traffic accident.The leg with a dislocation in the hip joint is in an unnatural position - it can be turned inwards and bent at the knee, turned outward or set aside.Such a trauma is accompanied by severe pain, but in no case should you try to correct the position of the limb!In the first aid in case of dislocation in the hip joint, one can only immobilize the joint in the position in which it is located, with the help of improvised means - scarves, clothes, belts.Further action should only be from medical personnel.
Splinting in hip and hip injuries
One of the most important factors for a successful recovery after the trauma under consideration is to ensure the immobility of the limb when transporting the injured person.Ensure the immobility of the affected limb with the help of improvised means or special tires.
Shinning with tool
You can use two boards of different lengths, a stick or a crutch.Outside, the tire should be applied from the foot to the armpit, from the inside - from the foot to the perineum.The halves of the tires are securely fastened with several handkerchiefs, any clothes, thereby ensuring the immobility of the limb.
If there is only one long board or crutch, then this object, along with the damaged limb, is tied to a healthy leg.Just do not forget that the outer part of the tire is attached to the armpit, that is, directly to the trunk.
Splinting with special bus
With a hip fracture, a special Dieterichs bus is used, which consists of two bars and the like of a sole.This tire is convenient because it can be adjusted to the height and length of the victim's leg.First, the shoes are tightly applied to the sole, fix it with a bandage.Then put the side strips and attach them with special straps.To extend the leg to the normal length of the limb, use a special lace, which is attached to the sole.Under the foot put a plywood tire and the whole of this structure is strengthened with a bandage.To impose a tire Dieterhisa can be specially trained staff, but this process can cope and absolutely unprepared person.
Injuries to the hip and hip are serious injuries that require qualified medical care.
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapist of the highest qualification category