Concussion of the brain: symptoms and treatment, first aid in case of concussion
|Narrowing or widening of both pupils||Pupils normally respond to light, and the person does not feel anything unusual.But the doctor may notice that the pupils' reaction is incorrect.If pupils of different sizes, then this indicates a more serious brain injury than a concussion.||Intracranial pressure exerts an effect on the centers of the autonomic nervous system, which regulate the contraction of muscles that narrow or dilate the pupil.|
|Eye trembling when guided to the side||When a person looks away, his eyes begin to tremble.It is difficult to examine objects without turning their heads to them.||This phenomenon is associated with the defeat of the inner ear, vestibular apparatus and cerebellum.These structures cause the eye muscles to contract rapidly.As a result, the victim can not focus his eyes.|
|Asymmetry of tendon reflexes||These reflexes are checked by a neurologist.He strikes with a hammer on the tendons, in response there is a flexion of the arm in the elbow joint or the legs in the knee.||Normally, the right and left limbs bend equally.Increased intracranial pressure disrupts the work of the brain and nerve fibers, which are responsible for performing reflex actions.|
|Time-resolved symptoms( appearing after 2-5 days)|
|Photophobia and hypersensitivity to sound||The person perceives inadequate sounds or normal levels of illumination.It irritates not only loud, but also moderate sounds.|| Due to the fact that a person after the injury is violated reflex narrowing of the pupils, bright light causes unpleasant sensations. |
Violation of the nerves that are responsible for the hearing aid causes irritation from the sounds.
|Depression, moodiness and irritability||Bad mood, reluctance to move, work and have fun.||At the heart of irritability lies the disruption of connections between nerve cells in the cerebral cortex, which are responsible for emotions.|
|Sleep Anxiety||Difficulty falling asleep, nocturnal or early waking.||Sleep problems are associated with unpleasant emotions experienced by a person with stress and overexcitation, as well as with circulatory disturbances in the brain.|
|Amnesia||Memory loss.A person can not remember what was immediately before the injury.Usually, the harder the blow, the longer the period falls out of memory.||The process of storing and playing back events in memory runs in several stages.If this chain is broken at the time of the injury, then some events may not be postponed in the long-term memory.|
|Absence of concentration of attention||A person can not concentrate on what he is doing at the moment.He is often distracted, becomes inattentive, switches to other occupations.||Poor concentration of attention is caused by a disruption of communication between the cerebral cortex and subcortical structures.|
Concussion occurs only with an aggressive mechanical effect on the head - for example, this can happen when a person falls and strikes his head on the floor.Physicians still can not give a precise definition of the mechanism of development of brain concussion symptoms, because even when CT is performed, doctors do not see any pathological changes in the tissues and the cortex of the organ.It is assumed that such an aggressive mechanical effect on the cranium leads to disruptions in the work of the nerve cells of the brain, which provokes a deficiency in the feeding of the tissues of the organ and a dissociation in the communication between the brain centers.Table of contents: Classification of concussion Symptoms of brain concussion First aid for concussion
Classification of concussion
In medicine, the term "concussion" refers to an easy form of craniocerebral trauma with short-term loss of consciousness.
Depending on what symptoms of the condition in question are observed in a person and with what intensity they occur, the classification of concussion of the brain will also depend. In medicine, it is common to distinguish between two severity levels of the current state of :
- Light concussion.At the same time, there will not be any serious violations in the structure and work of the brain even after a deep examination of the patient, and the classic symptoms of this condition disappear for a maximum of 14 days( more often in a shorter period).
- Severe concussion.Accompanied by ruptures of some blood vessels, the formation of a hematoma in the organ, the classic symptoms of the condition in question do not disappear for a month or more.
In some sources, there are 3 degrees of severity of concussion:
Symptoms of brain concussion
From a blow to the head, a person can lose consciousness - this condition can be short-term and long-lasting. But most often the person remains conscious and presents the following complaints:
- general weakness.
In the first hours after injury, the patient may complain of throbbing pain in the occipital region, nausea.But while the body temperature remains within the normal range, there is no loss of consciousness.Examining the patient visually, you can determine the increased pallor of the skin, rapid breathing, too fast heartbeat, the urge to vomit.
Note: , these signs of brain concussions that occur in the first hours after trauma disappear after a few days, some patients note significant relief of health the next day.
In this state, the activity of the brain's nerve cells is disrupted, which affects the work of the visual organs-pain may occur during eye movement, the pupils of the patient will be narrowed or widened and vary in size, complaints are received about the inability to focus the eye and the discrepancy of the eyeballsReading.
There may be other symptoms - for example, sudden flushing of blood to the face, a feeling of heat, excessive sweating, a systematic sleep disorder.
All these symptoms of brain concussion are very conditional - they can be present in a complex way, and only one of the signs of the development of a pathological condition can manifest. Doctors say that everything depends on the patient's age:
- When a brain is shaken in a child of infants, a loss of consciousness is absent, a sudden pallor of the face appears, the palpitations become rapid, and after feeding, there will always be regurgitation or vomiting.Later, parents may notice that the baby has become listless, drowsiness overcomes him, but the dream will be restless.
- If the head injury occurred in a child of preschool age, then with a mild course of the pathological condition, all these symptoms disappear after 2, maximum 3, days.
- Young people and those who are under 35 years old, most often lose consciousness when the brain is shaken, and all the above symptoms will have an average intensity - doctors talk about the classical pattern of pathology.
- In the elderly, the condition under consideration is most difficult to tolerate - not only all the symptoms will be pronounced, but in the future the patient may acquire disorientation in time and space.
It is believed that signs of brain concussion go through 10-14 days, but doctors warn that the consequences may appear much later.In some cases, regularly occurring severe headaches begin to bother the person and a few years after getting a head injury.
First aid for brain concussion
If there is a suspicion of a brain concussion, immediately call an ambulance team - you need to do a complete examination and make sure that there is a concussion, not a bruise or squeezing. But while waiting for the doctor, the following should be done:
- to lay the patient horizontally with some elevation of the head;
- in no case should not give the victim to drink and eat;
- open the windows - you need to give the patient a lot of fresh air;
- to the head you need to put something cold - it can be ice from the freezer, cloth soaked in cold water;
- the victim must observe absolute peace - he is even forbidden to watch TV or listen to music, communicate by phone, play on a tablet or laptop.
If the victim is unconscious, then move it, and even more so transport, is strictly prohibited!It is necessary to lay it on the right side( even on the floor), bend the left leg in the knee and the left arm at the elbow, and turn the head to the right side and press it to the chest with the chin.In this position, air will flow to the patient in the lungs without hindrance, breathing will not be suspended, and the vomit masses will not choke.
Treatment of brain concussion is carried out only after examination, prescribe any medications can only be a doctor. If there is no possibility to seek medical help, then the following recommendations should be adhered to during rehabilitation:
- in the room where the victim is located, you must observe absolute peace - he can not listen to music, watch TV and read books;
- no drugs with analgesic effect can not be taken;
- alcohol tinctures and alcoholic beverages are prohibited to consume;
- any physical load is excluded.
In any case, even if no symptoms are observed after 2 weeks, a medical examination is necessary - this will prevent the development of complications.
Traditional medicine in the treatment of concussion
There are several funds from the category of "traditional medicine" that can be of real use during the treatment of brain concussion.But they can and should be used only after examination and permission for such therapy from a doctor.
The following folk remedies can be used during the rehabilitation period:
- Take motherwort, mistletoe and mint( 100 g of each plant), chop and add 75 g of lemon balm.The resulting herb collection pour 500 ml of steep boiling water and insist for 6-8 hours( convenient to do it at night), taken 4 times a day for 50-100 ml per reception.
- Mix 20 g of valerian( reference), 10 g of mint / balm / hop cones.Take 2 tablespoons of the mixture and pour 300 ml of boiling water for 15 minutes.Then the infusion is filtered and drunk to the sick before the night sleep - all the received quantity at one time.
- Put 40 grams of mistletoe, shepherd's bag, yarrow and 20 grams of black, horsetail and thyme into a metal bowl.All pour a liter of steep boiling water and boil on a slow boil for no more than 7 minutes.Then the broth is filtered, cooled and drunk during the day in small doses for each appointment.
Note: a shepherd's bag is capable of provoking uterine bleeding, so you need to find out from a woman who is recovering from a concussion, whether she has a predisposition to bleeding from the uterus.
- Take a tablespoon of dry thyme black and pour two glasses of steep boiling water, then with a slight heating, the remedy is brought to a boil and cooled.Take a decoction of thyme black should be three times a day before meals in the amount of ½ cup.The course of treatment with this long-term drug is at least 3 months in a row.
Accelerate the restoration of the brain after this condition will help bee pollen - it is recommended to use it three times a day at a dose of half a teaspoon.The duration of such treatment is at least 30 days, then you need to take a break in therapy and after 10-15 days you can repeat the reception of the remedy.As a rule, if a brain concussion has passed without complications, then for complete recovery only 2 such courses of treatment with bee pollen will be needed.
Note: some healers recommend using as a cure for the brain concussion alcoholic tinctures of hawthorn and motherwort - official medicine categorically does not admit it.The fact is that no one can determine the actual level of brain damage under the condition under consideration and the body's reaction to alcohol tinctures can be absolutely unpredictable.
Possible complications after concussion
If the concussion is severe, there is hematoma and compression of the organ tissues, the complications can be very serious - from partial speech disturbance to confusion, loss of acquired skills, and so on.But in the case of a concussion of the mild brain, only headaches can be distinguished from possible complications.And this is only at first glance such a complication is taken as insignificant!In fact, patients with concussion of the brain in an anamnesis may experience intense, prolonged headaches in a few years.They are not removed with the usual painkillers, do not depend on weather conditions or fatigue.
If this complication occurs, then you should always seek help from specialists, and the therapist in this case will not help - you will need a consultation with a neurologist.
Concussion of the brain can be easy, asymptomatic and go without any complications.But in many cases the condition under consideration leads to various consequences, which are completely unpleasant for health.Everyone needs to know not only the first symptoms of concussion, but the rules for providing first aid.
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapeutist of the highest qualification category.