Arthralgia of the knee joint: symptoms, causes, treatment
Large knee joints are often exposed to severe overloads.The joints themselves have a rather complex anatomical structure, it provides flexion / extension of the leg, its movement in several planes.Moreover, the joint "protects" itself from excessive compression loads and incorrect flexion and extension.
But in some cases, inflammation can occur in these formations. main manifestation of disease is pain - arthralgia .Pain sensations can be quite intense.This is due to the pronounced innervation of the articular formations.Table of contents: Mechanism of pain occurrence Diagnosis of causes and diseases causing arthralgia Specific manifestations of arthralgia of the knee in various diseases How to remove arthralgia of the knee arthralgia Pregnancy and arthralgia of the knee joint Pain in the knees of young children Folk medicine in the treatment of arthralgia of the knee joint DietotherapyWith knee pain Prognosis for arthralgia of the knee
Mechanism of pain in arthralgia of the knee withstava
knee pain may result from direct stimulation of pain receptors.But most often arthralgia is evidence of an inflammatory process in the knee joint or surrounding tissues. Inflammation is a natural reaction of tissues to any diseases and traumatic injuries.Its main manifestations are fever, swelling, pain, redness, dysfunction.The process starts with the special signals given by the cells in the affected area.The role of these signals is played by inflammatory mediators.
After catching them, the body immediately starts exudation, during which the sweat of the fluid rich in protein and leukocytes, called for the destruction of the pathogenic agent, begins from the veins and capillaries near the affected site.So in surrounding tissues the infiltrate accumulates.
The growing edema compresses the vessels, nerves, tissues, which further exacerbates the painful process and intensifies the pain.The formation of tumorous formations - cysts, aneurysms( sack-like enlargements of vessels with thin walls, enlarged lymph nodes) intensify arthralgia.
In practice, there are psychogenic pains in the joints of the knees, the cause of which lies in the features of the nervous system of the patient.
Most often, the inflammatory process involves:
- cartilaginous tissue and its formations;
- blood vessels - arteries, veins;
- nerve trunks and endings;
- tissue of the lymphatic system - vessels and nodes;
- muscular-tendon complex;
- synovial and fibrous tissue capsules;
- subcutaneous fat;
- bone formation.
Diagnosis of causes and diseases that cause knee pain( arthralgia)
An experienced specialist -, an orthopedic trauma doctor or rheumatologist , should determine the cause of pain.Laboratory and instrumental diagnostics are preceded by the collection of complaints and examination by a doctor.
Depending on the intended cause, the following is done:
- general blood test ( the doctor is interested in the number of leukocytes and ESR for confirming the inflammatory process, eosinophils for allergic diseases);
- biochemical blood test .Deviations from the values of thymol test, the appearance of C-reactive protein, rheumatoid factor, ASL-O, changes in hepatic and renal samples allow the specialist to confirm the presence of certain diseases - rheumatism, oncology processes, kidney disease, liver;
- radiograph of the knee joint .This method can be supplemented with dynamic fluoroscopy, CT, MRI;
- of the knee joint ;
- diagnostic puncture of articular fluid .Allows you to find pathological cells;
- serological blood tests .To detect allergic and immune diseases;
- specific research .They are not directly related to arthralgia, but are capable of detecting a possible cause.For example: determining the level of hormones in the blood, smears from the mucous of the genital organs, etc.
Please note : in the absence of obvious possible causes of pain in the knee joints, a doctor may suspect the development of psychogenic rheumatism.
Specific manifestations of arthralgia of the knee in various diseases
Pain sensations have some distinctive features in various pathologies.
Deforming arthrosis, which is accompanied by destruction of the cartilaginous tissue, gives a permanent, pain-intensifying pain.It is characterized by frequent nighttime exacerbations, which are accompanied by swelling and redness of the joint.
Inflammation of the popliteal artery or veins is accompanied by a periodicity of pain, with a predominance of stitching paroxysmal variants and the presence of signs of vascular injury, thrombosis.
Inflammation of the popliteal lymphatic formation gives an increase in pain when pressure is applied to it, while wearing tightening clothes.
Traumatic pains in the knee are of a different shade - from drawing, to pronounced.The load can both increase pain in the joint, and vice versa, muffle them.
An erysipelas or dermatitis above the knee area gives a pronounced edema, redness and a burning-licking pain.Sometimes the pain is so severe that the patient can not move the limb with the affected joint.
Inflammation of the synovial bag - bursitis along with pain severely restricts functions in the knee joint.
The infectious nature of joint inflammation - arthritis, is accompanied by severe intoxication of the whole organism.Recommended to read:
How to remove arthralgia of the knee joint
Causes of pain in the knee may require emergency care or be non-urgent.
In the first case, an immediate call of a doctor is required and most often hospitalization. Conditions dictating the need for emergency care:
- intra-articular fractures, dislocations, subluxations and stretching of the knee-jointed formations;
- hemorrhage in the joint;
- purulent processes in the knee joint with a high temperature, pronounced intoxication and intense, throbbing pains;
- sharp, nothing unreasonable "jamming" movements in the joint.
What to do in this case:
- immediately call a doctor( an ambulance);
- provide a patient leg position that reduces pain;
- to the knee to apply a cold bandage( ice, low temperature water, hypothermic packages);
- find an analgesic pill( learn about a possible allergy!).
Important : categorically contraindicated the massage and the application of bandage with elastic fibers.
Therapeutic treatment of arthralgia of the knee in diseases that do not require emergency care:
- knee injury. This type of damage requires temporary immobilization of the joint.Most often for the treatment of arthralgia, a plaster bandage, hardware fixation methods, and skeletal traction are used.To reduce the pain prescribed painkillers( in tablets and injections - Diclofenac, Ibuprofen), ointments, injections of hormones, with severe pain and edematous inflammation;
- allergic processes. In these cases, arthralgia is eliminated by antihistamine drugs of recent generations( Loratadine), hormone intake( Dexamethasone).Benefits are the use of activated carbon, drugs that can reduce the activity of cells involved in allergic processes - Nedocromil;
- rheumatic diseases .Combinations of glucocorticosteroids( Prednisolone) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs( Indomethacin, Ibuprofen) gradually remove the manifestations of arthralgia of the knee joint;
- pain in infectious pathologies. In this case, the treatment of analgesic, antipyretic, antihistamine and hormone therapy is supplemented with the appointment of antibiotics;Chemotherapy, radiotherapy,
- . They are prescribed for the treatment of arthralgia of the knee joint in diseases of tumor nature.
With all treatment options, the patient needs bed rest.
Surgical intervention for arthralgia is required if necessary:
- autopsy of the focus with purulent contents;
- reconstruction of ligamentous tendon structures;
- removal of new processes, cysts;
- operations on vessels( resection of varicose veins, sclerotherapy, removal of aneurysms of arteries, installation of stents);
Treatment of neurological arthralgias of the knee requires an individual plan with the use of different groups of drugs and mandatory consultation of a neurologist or psychiatrist.
Pregnancy and arthralgia of the knee
Women who expect a child with chronic diseases often have knee joint problems, especially in the last trimester of pregnancy.Often against the background of excessive body weight. The use of medications in this case requires the consultation of several specialists, to exclude the appointment of treatment, which can damage the developing child .
Pain in the knees of young children
The specificity of the treatment of arthralgia in children consists in the anatomical features of the children's articular-muscular apparatus of the knee joint and the side effects of some medicines.In children, pain often occurs with orthopedic problems.Arthralgia should be treated only by a pediatrician( therapist, surgeon, other specialized specialists).
Traditional medicine in the treatment of arthralgia of the knee joint
The rich centuries-old experience of traditional medicine left a large number of recipes that ease pain in the knee joints.
Lotions with various herbs, infusions, tinctures, decoctions, compresses, rubbing and ointments with proper use can reduce pain.
Anesthetic and anti-inflammatory effect is possessed by:
- chestnut ingredients;
- flowers of marigold, chamomile, lilac;
- potato tubers;
- leaves of laurel, raspberry;
- horseradish root;
- olive oil;
- preparations of honey;
- blue clay.
Important : Traditional medicine treatment can in no case replace official treatment and should only be applied after the doctor's recommendations.
Dietotherapy for pain in the knees
The diet should be observed on the basis of the rules of treatment of the main disease.
General features of dietotherapy is the restriction:
- fried, sour, smoked;
- application of spices and salt;
- excessively hot and cold food;
- when consuming fatty meat and butter and dairy products.
- cereal soups, jelly, fruit compotes;
- lean meat - veal( boiled, or steamed);
- low-fat varieties of river and sea fish;
- local fruits and vegetables, from exotics should refrain.
Forecast for arthralgia of the knee
In most cases, the pain can be reduced or completely eliminated by therapeutic and physiotherapeutic methods.Prognostic results depend on the treatment of the underlying disease.In some cases, it is possible to achieve complete healing, sometimes greatly alleviate the pain and minimize relapse of the disease.In severe cases, the condition of patients is facilitated by palliative measures( adequate anesthesia).
Alexander Lotin, radiologist, medical reviewer