Proper development of the child in the first year of life
Immediately after birth, the baby's body begins to actively develop - the work of all systems and organs is stabilized, new skills and skills are emerging.It is not necessary that the child's organism develops according to the template scheme, but deviations from the standards can be only insignificant.Contents: Child development from 0 to 3 months Child development from 3 to 6 months Child development from 6 to 9 months Development from 9 months to one year
Child development from 0 to 3 months
The first three months of a toddler's life are consideredThe most difficult, since it is at this time that the organism adapts to the surrounding world and the work of all organs and systems is established. To enable parents to follow their child's development and not worry about each and every occasion, you can use the template calendar:
- Period 0-1 month.The child is still very weak, spending most of his time in a dream.The muscles of the baby's body are not developed, he can not even hold the head by himself.But the upper and lower limbs, on the contrary, are almost always strained, pinched, are, so to speak, in a springy state.
The normal weight of a child of this age is 2, 5 - 4, 5 kg, these figures concern only the growth of the baby. 45 - 54 cm. Parents should know that in the first month of the baby's life, his hearing and vision organs are very weakly developed - the baby does not distinguish colors, And there is no reaction to loud noises.
- Period 1- 2 months.External changes begin to appear - facial features become pronounced, the newborn puffiness of the body disappears, the skin covers acquire a natural shade.Muscular tone already passes, the child at this age can unclench the fists, briefly lifts the head, actively waves the limbs.
Closer to two months, sounds begin to appear - the baby is agog, smiling consciously.Parents during this period can establish eye contact with the child, he will carefully consider everything around and recognize the faces of loved ones.Parents should know that during this period there is a rapid development of hearing organs, so you should avoid loud, harsh sounds - the baby can be very frightened.
- Period 2 - 3 months.This is an active stage of development - the baby starts to take toys and other items in the hand, the time of his daytime sleep decreases, and the night rest, on the contrary, becomes uninterrupted.The kid begins to be interested in the surrounding world - lying on his tummy begins to raise his head, resting his legs, imitating a lift.
By the age of three months the weight of the child reaches 5.9 - 6.5 kg with growth of 53-62 cm.
The first trimester of the year of the baby ends, the development of the baby is relatively calm and systematic, all systems and organs operate within the normal range,Sleep and wakefulness is clearly established.Recommended reading:
Child development from 3 to 6 months
After three months of age, the parents begin a relatively quiet period - the baby develops confident stages, adaptation to the surrounding world has passed. Parents can track the development of the child according to the following pattern:
- 4 months.The child himself keeps his head, closely follows the movement of people and objects around the room, is already able to stand on legs( of course, with support under the mouse).Just at this age, teeth begin to erupt, which can be accompanied by vagaries, crying, sleep disturbance, active salivation.
At 4 months the child has a fully developed communication skill - a crumb can call relatives and friends with sounds, long looks at faces and expresses pleasure with a smile or laughter.
- 5 months.The baby starts to sit, but first with support: in the arena, chair.During active games, the crumb can already independently turn from back to belly and in the opposite direction( if the game is on the couch).Some children at this age can already climb themselves in the arena.
At this age, the social factor is activated - the kid needs attention, he does not like to stay alone for a long time, and calls for shouting and active movements.The grasping reflex in the child is fully developed - he not only takes in the pen the object or toy he likes, but also shifts it from hand to hand.
- 6 months.The muscular mass of the child becomes strong, he already knows his own body quite well, many babies begin to crawl by this period of their life.
At 6 months, the growth of crumbs reaches 60-70 cm, and weight - 7, 9 - 9 kg.The teeth of the child are actively cut, which causes an active concern of crumbs.
The first six months of a child's life are marked by the acquisition of the crawling skill, from this moment the kid can engage in active games without the involvement of the parents.
Child development from 6 to 9 months
After six months of life, parents should pay special attention to the psychomotor development of the baby.
- 7 months.Crawling becomes familiar, the child likes to walk on the street, with obvious interest considering everything around.By this age the kid absolutely accurately recognizes the faces of close people, distinguishes his name and even remembers the names of some objects.In 6-7 months usually actively introduce complementary foods.
- 8 months.Begins to appear, so-called, tweezers, when the crumb takes objects not with the entire palm, but with two fingers.The baby's diet is expanding, but the increase in height and weight stops a little - it's time for active development of communication and conversation skills.
- 9 months.If the baby develops well, he can already get up, holding on to the sofa, chair or wall.Some children at this age begin to take the first steps, of course, with support.It was at the age of nine months that the crumb for the first time consciously utters simple words: "Mom, woman."
The third trimester of the first year of the baby's life will show how socially adapted the child will be.There are children who can sit for a long time alone and deal with a toy or some object, and there are such children for whom the absence of live communication is equal to a catastrophe.It is not necessary to "redo" your baby, it is better to adapt to it - its development will proceed harmoniously.Recommended reading:
Development from 9 months to one year
This period is considered the most active stage in the development of the baby's body .Here is an example template:
- 10 months.Crawling is already accompanied by overcoming obstacles, children try to crawl over rollers, chairs, can crawl down the steps.The first steps will be very insecure, but attempts to walk around the kid will be permanent, so parents should create a safe zone for their crumbs.
- 11 months.The baby's diet is very wide - dairy products, vegetables and fruits, meat, cereals.The baby already has several teeth that need to be cleaned - this will prevent the development of caries.
- 1 year.The child understands perfectly what can and can not be done, remembers the places where interesting objects are located, understands absolutely everything that others say to him.
At one-year age the child's character manifests itself - he often expresses a protest against his activities that are not suitable for him, so it is very important to teach him to express his protests not with cries and hysterics, but with simple / quiet communication.
The presented child development calendar is a template and it is unlikely that there will be a child who develops "according to the book".But parents, using the above points, can help their little ones learn some skills and note the possible backlog.
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapist of the highest qualification category