What a child should be able to do in 1 year
The development of the child, especially the first child, is not only a great joy, but also a difficult test for the parents' nerves.In our age of advanced technology and the spreading hyperope, any deviation from the ideal norm can cause a panic among newly mum and dad.Most often this attitude is groundless and not supported, since different children belong to different psychotypes, they are born with different weights, height, have different physical health, different metabolism and a lot of other features of the body.This difference is caused by the fact that all children develop differently: someone starts to crawl early, and someone does not creep at all, someone almost from birth suffices everything that comes to hand, and someone loves for a long timeAnd consider the objects thoughtfully.There are no two identical children, however certain norms of development of children do exist.It is about how the child develops to 1 year old, and that he must be able to his first birthday, and this article will be discussed.
Early childhood development
The younger the child, the more rapidly the child develops.It includes socialization, getting ideas about certain skills, recognizing parents, studying the world.Up to one year, the fastest change in the mind and behavior of the baby occurs.
At the earliest age the child actively learns the world around him.He does not yet have an idea of his own "I", but he is extremely interested in everything that is happening around him.
A one-year-old child is a researcher who needs to be given the opportunity to actively explore the world around him, climb into interesting places, touch interesting things - but at the same time guard against the dangers that can be trapped by him: hot pots and kettles, drops, sharp objects.And then the baby will quickly learn everything that a child should be able to do in 1 year.
The most effective in this period of child development, most psychologists recognize as a method of moderate non-interference .Let the child explore the environment as much as he sees fit.Very good, if the parents have the opportunity to regularly change each other as a kind of "guard" of the child.
As a rule, women are solely engaged in upbringing of the baby for up to three years, however this round-the-clock work is extremely difficult and requires constant concentration, which is difficult to achieve during regular lack of sleep.Therefore, to simultaneously not limit the freedom of the child in the study of the world, parents should agree among themselves or find a good nanny.Of course, the most lucky for those who have caring aunts or grandmothers, ready to devote time to the baby.
Difficulties faced by the parents of the one-year-old child
What difficulties can parents expect at this stage of development?Of course, first of all, it is necessary to prepare for the fact that the infant is a being that is not yet fully aware of the causal relationship between many phenomena.He does not yet understand that touching hot can be painful, and swallowing small solid toys can suffocate.That's why the baby needs almost constant control.At this age it will be nice to explain to the child in a joking example that some things can cause pain and be dangerous.
So, a long way has passed from birth to reaching one-year-old age.Parents should check the list of things and skills that a child should be able to do in 1 year.
Basic and mandatory skills of children on reaching the year: what to look for
When assessing the development of your child, be sure to evaluate its achievements in mastering such skills as walking, serving yourself with food, concentrating, communicating and interacting with the world around you.Do not forget to pay attention to the fine motor skills of the hands.
Walking is one of the criteria of the child's abilities in 1 year
Perhaps one of the most exciting moments in the life of parents is the first step of their child.However, it is because of the great value of this moment that many are frightened when it does not come too long;Or vice versa, the child begins to take steps too early.
On average, children make their first relatively independent steps, holding on to some support, namely to 12 months.However, there may be exceptions to this rule.The average indices indicate that the start of independent walking can be laid in 9 months and at 15. Therefore, if your baby is already 14 months old, and he still can not make a separate step - do not panic and urgently guide him to all the doctors.Be patient with your child, give him time.
Basic skills of serving themselves when feeding
Up to one year it is necessary to teach the child to eat from a spoon.Doctors( especially dentists) recommend weaning the baby from bottles and pacifier as early as possible.The fact is that the abuse of the nipples can lead to an incorrect bite and other problems with the teeth in the future.
Motorcycle: what should a child be able to do in 1 year
Until a year the child is actively studying the world around him, as well as his reaction to his own actions.The kid must learn to hold firmly enough in his hands various objects, to wear them, perhaps twirl in their hands and examine them.Some motor problems at this age may be normal, but if your child has poor control over his fingers and can not keep the subject in 12 months, it is better to consult a pediatrician who will help with the problem.Subsequently, delays in the development of motor skills can become more noticeable and result in pathological clumsiness and awkwardness.However, as a rule, the period of active needlework( when kids collect origami and mold from plasticine) aligns these delays and helps actively develop fine motor skills.
To assess the fine motor skills of a child at the age of 1 year, simple games are also used such as:
- construction of pyramids from rings;
- construction of "turrets" from cubes;
Communication skills of one-year-old children
A one-year-old child needs to know the meaning of at least 10 words.Pay attention to such important words as "impossible", "hot", "dangerous", "tasty" and the like.Through these words it is possible to bring up in the child various reactions to interaction with the surrounding world and instill understanding of the simplest causal relationships.
Also the child in 1 year should understand the meaning of such words as "give", "stop", "take", "show", and be able to respond to them correctly( take an object when they say "take", stop at the request).
By twelve months the child must develop an understanding of the human emotions.He must understand when his mother or father praises him or, conversely, scolds him.A very bright indicator of the emotional development of the baby is crying "for the company" - when a child hears how his age is crying, he can join without a special reason.Scold him for it in any case is not worth it - this can lead to a decrease in empathy in the future.You need to gently convince the kid that nothing bad has happened to him, and calm him down.
The kid should be able to communicate with peers.As a rule, the communication of one-year-old children is limited to games, but this is already a bright indicator of good emotional and social education.
A one-year-old child should know well how to call his relatives and closest people: mother, father, woman, grandfather;In the case of brothers or sisters - a simplified form of the name.Also, a child in 1 year must know his name - be able to call it to other people and respond to it.
Please note : is a very important element of social education - the ability to express consent or disagreement.The child should know the words "yes" and "no", nod or shake his head in response to monosyllabic questions.
Reaction to the environment
At this age it is often very difficult to determine the presence or absence of any diseases that cause disability or loss of certain senses, for example, partial deafness.
That's why it is important to determine the reaction of the baby to the outside world.What factors should be taken into account:
- will the child recognize the voices of parents and loved ones;
- whether the child recognizes the faces of parents and loved ones;
- does the child feel pain when struck, burned, or injured;
- does the child lose orientation in space when creeping or walking.
Important: , if any of the above factors is violated, you should contact the pediatrician and conduct a survey.If you notice the wrong development of the auditory system, visual organs, touch and other body systems in time, you can fix them.
The ability of a child at the age of 1 year to concentrate attention
A very important point in the development of a young child is the ability to concentrate on one thing( cartoon, game, communication), even for a couple of minutes.Children under one year are often incapable of such a relatively calm behavior - their attention is almost impossible to deter, because they are not yet able to cope with a certain willpower, which is necessary for this.However, a year the child should already have an idea of the duration of the action.
Note: if your kid at one-year-old age can not concentrate on any occupation for even a minute, you should visit a pediatrician.The cause of this condition can be attention deficit disorder.
At such a small age, he does not play a big role in the life of the child, but with admission to kindergarten, and then school, he can play a cruel joke and wrap up carelessness and restlessness against the child.The consequences can be the most unpleasant - from poor progress to the inability to master any skills due to low concentration of attention.
What does not, but can make a child in 1 year
In addition to the above skills, the following skills often develop in children by the year:
- The child can express his natural needs( hunger, pot, inconvenience) by any meansCrying.For example, it can be specific sounds( grunting, sniffing, characteristic guacking), by which the parent can understand what the baby needs.
- The kid learns or already knows how to play simple ball games.Is able to push, throw, grab the ball, pass it to others.
- Attempts to reproduce adult speech - this is an excellent indication that can indicate the rapid development of a child in 1 year and its good potential.Sometimes, because of the characteristics of the child's pronunciation, special words are obtained, which only remotely resemble real ones( for example, "dog" - "babaka") and firmly enter the child's speech precisely in such a "childlike" way.
- Generalization of subjects by common feature is a bright sign that your child has an extraordinary mindset in 1 year and is capable of abstract thinking.If the kid calls his doll "lyalei" and sees another child in the street with another child, he points with his finger and says "lya" - this is a good sign.Try to develop the child in this direction.
- Drawing with improvised tools, fingers and palms often develops for more than a year, but this skill is not necessary and necessary, and its absence does not indicate problems in development.
Early development of children in 1 yearWe recommend to read:
Parents should understand that full provision of the baby to himself is as destructive for his skills, as well as excessive interest in expensive "forks" and constant loads of various activities.To continue to develop the child's existing skills in 1 year, it is necessary to catch the middle - to play with the baby in developing games, but not to press on him when he is tired and just wants to be pampered, crawl or watch cartoons.
Developing toys that will help develop the child's skills in 1 year and older
Now the shops are full of various development toys for every taste and color.All of them have something in common - they are extremely overrated.Some parents are convinced that if they spend a fortune on buying developing toys of all colors, then the child will grow up to be a genius.This is not true.It is important not the number of toys, but the ability of an adult to submit them is interesting and understandable for the child.It is not necessary to buy expensive toys in children's shops to teach the child to distinguish colors( use colored paper cards), shapes( again - cut out triangles and squares of paper).
Developing toy "by one's own hands":
Note: should also mention that without certain toys, the baby will have a delay in the development of motor skills.The most effective and inexpensive toys for this purpose are cubes, pyramids from rings, balls.
How to improve communication skills in a child in 1 year
Of course, communication with parents plays a key role in the development of the baby.The main principle - do not forget that he does not yet know most of the basic things.Try not only to tell the reasons and consequences, but to show them visually, by your own actions.
Stimulate the child in 1 year to report their needs.For example, planting it on a pot, say "conventional sign", for example, "pss".The kid will remember the sound and will be able to repeat it.Here it is a matter of instilling a sense of communication-a pot and sound.As soon as the kid learns it, he will be able to tell you about his desire to go to the toilet, even if he does not know how to speak properly.
Try to use as simple a speech as possible.Communicate with the child, using separate words, rather than whole constructions.Actively apply gestures, facial expressions, intonation.This will help the child learn to understand not only verbal, but also non-verbal communication.
More details on the methods of early development of children tells the pediatrician - Dr. Komarovsky:
Chumachenko Olga, pediatrician