Breast diseases can occur at any age, but women are especially affected after thirty-five years, as well as female representatives suffering from hormonal disorders.Soreness in the chest, the presence of palpable seals and gnarled formations, pathological discharge from the nipple, the entrainment of the nipple - all this is a direct reason for contacting the mammalogist for a comprehensive examination.Table of contents: Breast Diseases Breast Palpation X-ray Methods of Breast Examination Other Instrumental Diagnostic Methods Laboratory Diagnostics Standards
The most common diseases of the mammary glands are:
- Mastopathy is a hormone-dependent disease characterized by adenosisIn the tissues of the mammary glands;
- Acute mastitis - inflammation of the breast tissue, occurs mainly in women during lactation;
- Fibroadenoma.Tumor neoplasm of benign character;
- Breast cyst.Formation of cavities of various sizes in the breast.Cysts have a liquid content;
- Cancer.Malignant disease of mammary glands, occupying the first place among oncological pathologies in female representatives.
For the accurate diagnosis, modern instrumental methods of objective diagnosis are used, as well as laboratory studies.
The most simple diagnostic method.Even at the first examination the doctor performs palpation( palpation) of the mammary glands.
Important ! Detection of single or multiple seals, nodules or tubercles, tenderness of tissues is a direct indication for a comprehensive examination.
X-ray methods for examining the mammary glands
Methods for X-ray diagnosis of the mammary glands include:
- mammography - x-ray examination of mammary glands in a straight and oblique projection;
- mammotsintigrafiya - is carried out with the help of radioactive substances, which accumulate in the malignant neoplasm.The method allows to determine the nature of the tumor, its size and prevalence;
- doktografiya - radiographic examination with the introduction of contrast medium to determine the patency of the ducts of the breast;
- pneumocystography - examination is performed after a puncture of the mammary gland cyst.Air is introduced into the cavity of the formation, then a standard mammography is performed.The method allows to assess the condition of the walls of the cystic cavity, to identify the presence of adjacent formations, etc.
Other instrumental diagnostic methods for examining the mammary glands
- Ultrasound examination of the mammary glands - in medical practice most often ultrasound is used as an adjunct to mammography.Ultrasonic waves do not do any harm to the patient's body, therefore the study can be conducted unlimited number of times.During ultrasound diagnosis, the condition of the gland tissues is determined, neoplasms and their main characteristics are revealed.It is worth noting that with ultrasound examination of the breast, there is always a risk of obtaining false results, the poet on the basis of one ultrasound can not be diagnosed.
- Magnetic resonance imaging is a method that allows to detect cicatricial changes, cystic formations of small size, metastases of malignant tumors.
- Computed tomography is a highly informative method for examining the structure of the breast, detecting pathological neoplasms and determining their nature.
Laboratory tests in the comprehensive breast examination include:
- general clinical examination of urine and blood;
- study of hormonal status;
- definition of oncomarkers;
- breast biopsy followed by histological examination of the resulting material.
After a comprehensive examination using the above methods, an accurate diagnosis can be made and an individual treatment strategy developed.Due to the high prevalence of diseases of the mammary glands, in particular cancer, it is strongly recommended not to postpone the visit to the doctor if any pathological symptoms are found.Female representatives older than thirty-five years of age should visit a specialist for preventive purposes twice a year.
Normally, no x-ray and ultrasound examinations, CT and MRI are detected.The results of hormonal analysis and other laboratory tests are also within acceptable limits.
Chumachenko Olga, medical reviewer