Diagnosis of thyroid hypothyroidism
The decline in thyroid function in medicine is classified as hypothyroidism - a condition in which the body produces a small amount of thyroid hormones.Contents:
Types of hypothyroidism
If we talk about the reasons for the development of the disease under consideration, even in the conditions of modern science they are not fully understood.It is assumed that a decrease in the production of thyroid hormones can occur due to the occurrence of problems directly in the thyroid itself or disorders in the hypothalamic-pituitary system.
But this thyroid disease is well studied and even classified into two main types - primary hypothyroidism and pituitary( or secondary) hypothyroidism.
Primary hypothyroidism: causes and subspecies
This type of thyroid disease under consideration is divided into several types:
- Damaging, or alternating.Occurs in the background of damage to the thyroid tissue that can occur for the following reasons:
- organ trauma;
- disorders in the functioning of the immune system;
- medicamental effect on the body - the use of powerful drugs in large doses;
- Radiation therapy;
- temperature effect on the body.
- Iodine deficiency.In this case, the primary hypothyroidism occurs against the background of a lack of iodine in the body, which leads to disorders in the thyroid gland.
The considered type of hypothyroidism can be congenital and acquired, and, in childhood, the disease is just an innate nature.And most often the cause of congenital type of the disease in childhood is hypothyroidism of the mother during pregnancy - if the diagnosis was not literate, the future mother did not receive qualified treatment, then the child simply had no chance of normal formation of the thyroid gland.
Acquired primary type hypothyroidism develops for the following reasons :
- inflammatory processes in the thyroid gland;
- surgery in history of removal( partial or complete) of the thyroid gland;
- effects on the body of radiation;
- was treated with preparations of radioactive iodine;
- endemic goiter;
- tumors of the thyroid gland of benign or malignant nature.
With , the secondary hypothyroidism of is much simpler - the cause of its development are some pathologies of the pituitary and / or hypothalamus, since it is the hypothalamic-pituitary system that "responds" to the functioning of the thyroid gland.
Symptoms of Thyroid Hypothyroidism
Symptoms of the disease in question can not be called specific - they can be present in other diseases. The most characteristic signs of hypothyroidism are:
- fragility and dryness of hair and nail plates;
- lowering of body temperature;
- in the voice appears hoarseness;
- early development of atherosclerosis;
- development of heart failure;
- decreased memory and decreased concentration of attention;
- chronic constipation;
- slowing down all mental processes;
- increased drowsiness;
You have to go through the diagnostics in a medical institution - for example, hair loss can indicate hypothyroidism, but this symptom is also present under stresses, overfatigue, severe skin pathologies and other diseases.
Note: in some cases, hypothyroidism may have absolutely no characteristic symptoms - for example, patients experience delayed or rapid heart rate.The reasons for this clinical picture of modern medicine are not known.
Differential diagnosis of hypothyroidism:
Treating hypothyroidism of the thyroid
The diagnosis of hypothyroidism is made only by a specialist and only after a complete examination of the patient.First of all, the doctor will send the patient to the blood tests - in a laboratory study, a reduced amount of the hormone T4( thyroid hormone) can be found in this biomaterial.With such results, the diagnosis of hypothyroidism is confirmed.
Treatment of the disease should be comprehensive - only in this case the patient's condition can be stabilized and introduce a pathology in a state of remission.
The appointment of a doctor will consist in taking medications levothyroxine and eutirox.These drugs help restore the amount of thyroid hormones within normal limits.
If the disease in question occurs against the background of a lack of iodine in the body( endemic goiter is diagnosed), then the specialists prescribe to the patient medications with a high iodine content - for example, iodomarine.
Please note: only a doctor can prescribe medications containing iodine!The thyroid gland working with disorders can not cope with the task of processing a certain amount of iodine, so this substance will only cause harm to health.
Diet for hypothyroidism
Correction of nutrition in this disease is a mandatory point of complex treatment.The patient needs to eat foods rich in vitamins, proteins and minerals - this will help the body, will stimulate the normalization of the thyroid gland.
Necessarily it is necessary to reduce quantity of used products with the high maintenance of fats and carbohydrates - at a hypothyrosis the organism works too languidly, therefore once again to load it it is not necessary.
In the menu of the patient must be present vegetables and fruits, porridges and legumes - fiber will improve the work of the intestines, which will eventually make the assimilation of vitamins and minerals as possible.
It is compulsory for the disease under consideration to restrict the use of salt and liquid to the patient - this will reduce swelling that is characteristic of hypothyroidism.
Treatment of hypothyroidism can be quite successful and after a course of taking certain medications a person becomes absolutely healthy.But in some cases, hypothyroidism remains for life, which implies compliance with the diet, periodic intake of medications.Doctors never give any specific forecasts for the disease under consideration.
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapeutist of the highest qualification category