Ultrasound of the prostate: preparation, evidence, the essence of the procedure
It is possible to examine the prostate gland with high efficiency using ultrasound.In the course of this diagnosis, two methods are used - transabdominal and transrectal ultrasound.
Transabdominal ultrasound scanning of the prostate involves a study of the organ through the abdominal wall, therefore for obese men who have a significant fat layer on the abdomen, this method of examination is not suitable.In turn, transrectal ultrasound, conducted through the rectum, is highly informative in patients of any complexion.The difference in the informativeness of these techniques is explained simply: the distance from the ultrasonic sensor to the prostate with transrectal access is only 5-10 mm, and for the transabdominal it is 10 cm or more, which can not but affect the quality of the image obtained on the monitor.
Because of its high efficiency, transrectal ultrasound examination of the prostate is recognized as the gold standard in the diagnosis of genitourinary diseases in men.
Ultrasound of the prostate for men is the same important diagnostic procedure as gynecological examination or mammography for women. In this regard, a regular ultrasound examination of the prostatic gland is desirable for all men( especially after the age of 50 years) regardless of whether they have any complaints or not. Such prophylactic examinations are necessary for the timely detection of benign and malignant neoplasms of the prostate.
In addition, ultrasound of the prostate is indicated to patients who complain about:
- Pain above the pubis, in the perineum, in the lower abdomen.
- Difficult, painful or frequent urination.
- "Weakness" of the jet.
- Feeling not fully emptied of the bladder.
- Problems with potency.
- Admixture of blood in the sperm.
- Disturbance of the process of ejaculation.
In addition, an ultrasound examination of the prostate gland is assigned to men who, in a finger examination through the rectum, the urologist has detected an increase in the prostate, a change in its density, or a feeling of the organ causing severe discomfort.
What can be detected
Using ultrasound of the prostate can be identified:
- Prostate adenoma.
- Oncological pathology.
- Causes of infertility( in the course of ultrasound, other anatomical structures located nearby, including seminal vesicles and vas deferens, are examined along with the prostate, with the narrowing of which there may be problems with conception).
To study the structure of the prostate more closely, ultrasound is almost always supplemented by the duplex scanning of the organ( allowing to visualize and evaluate the blood flow).Thanks to this technique, doctors can detect areas with a pathological vascular network, which is characteristic of cancer tumors.With simple ultrasound, such pathological sites are not always visualized.In addition, by means of duplex scanning it is possible to detect the presence of blood stagnation in the prostate and in the whole in the venous system of the small pelvis.In some pathologies, the elimination of these phenomena is of paramount importance.For example, prostatitis often occurs due to the fact that the man moves little and his blood stagnates in his pelvis.To improve hemocirculation, such patients are prescribed special medicines, prostate massage, therapeutic gymnastics.
Preparation for ultrasound of the prostate
Because ultrasound of the prostate gland is carried through the rectum, it is necessary to go to the toilet "in large" in the morning before the procedure.If there are problems with bowel movement, you should drink a laxative or an enema.Other training is required.
In the case of transabdominal ultrasound examination of the prostate to improve the visualization of the organ, it is necessary to ensure the filling of the bladder.To do this, before the procedure, it is advisable to drink liquids more than usual( start drinking water is recommended no later than one hour before the study).
How is ultrasound of the prostate
Transabdominal ultrasound is usually: on the suprapubic area of the patient, the doctor applies a conductive gel and drives the sensor over the stomach to obtain the most successful image of the organ under examination.
Transrectal examination is performed in a slightly different way.Before the test, the patient should bare the lower body and lie on his side bending his knees and turning to the doctor with his back.For this scan, a special rectal sensor is used, on which a condom is placed before each examination.Prepared in this way, the sensor is lubricated with a conductive gel and injected into the rectum.
In general, the procedure for ultrasound examination of the prostate does not last long( 10-15 minutes) and is well tolerated by patients. Unpleasant sensations can occur only in those men who have an acute inflammatory process or swelling of the prostate.
Zubkova Olga Sergeevna, medical reviewer, epidemiologist-doctor