Cervical cancer.This dangerous disease is actively diagnosed and, unfortunately, often the effectiveness of treatment of this cancer pathology is at a critically low level.One of the reasons for the development of cervical cancer is the human papillomavirus( HPV) - specifically to prevent infection and sent a vaccination program.Table of contents: Important about HPV Classification of HPV vaccines and the principle of their operation The principle of the vaccination against HPV 16 and HPV 18 types The optimal age for vaccination against HPV Features of carrying out HPV vaccination Side effects Recommended:
Important about HPVRecommended to read:
Medicine knows about 100 kinds of human papillomavirus, many of them act on the body in a complex way, and 15 species are able to cause the development of oncogenic cells.The most dangerous in this regard are HPV 16 and 18 kinds - they provoke the development of cancer of the penis and cervix.
Infection with the virus in question is possible with oral, anal and genital sexual intercourse, during the child's passage of the birth canal, in close contact with a person infected with the human papillomavirus( for example, in contact with the skin).Very high probability of HPV infection in those people who prefer polygamous sexual relations( multiple sexual partners), and the highest level of infection occurs during adolescence( according to statistics - 15-19 years).
When a person enters the human body, the human papillomavirus does not manifest itself for a long time at all.Only after years the infection penetrates / breaks DNA and regenerates cells of the cervix and penis into cancer cells.
Classification of vaccines against HPV and the principle of their action
Many believe that HPV vaccines contain living human papillomaviruses - it's not. This preparation contains:
- organic substances very similar to HPV, but not capable of causing the development of the disease;
- antibacterial agents( antibiotics);
- yeast elements;
- aluminum hydroxide.
Note : the vaccine in question is available as a suspension.It is packed in a syringe - it contains a single dose for administration.
Principle of the Inoculation against HPV 16 and HPV 18 Types
What is the principle of the vaccine?It penetrates into the immune system, which begins to produce specific antibodies.Subsequently, when infected with human papillomavirus, these antibodies do not allow the virus to "gain a foothold" in the body and develop up to oncogenic cells.During the research it was found that timely vaccination against HPV allows in 96% of cases to avoid infection and the development of serious diseases.
In medicine, two types of the drug in question are used:
- Gardasil - actively counteracts the penetration of viruses of the 16th, 18th and 11th types into the tissues, is made in the Netherlands;
- Cervarix is a production of Belgium, able to withstand viruses of 16 and 18 types.
These two types protect the human against the entry into the body of viruses of 16 and 18 types - they are considered to be the most oncogenic.Gardasil also prevents the appearance of papillomas around the anus, in the vagina, on the cervix.Most often, the above vaccines are used for women and girls, but Gardasil can also prevent the development of penile cancer against the background of HPV - HPV vaccination to men do as they wish.
Optimal age for vaccination against HPV
World health experts recommend that the vaccine be administered to womenUnder the age of 26 years.Generally, it is considered that it is most effective to administer the vaccine at the age of 12-15 years and 20-23.According to the vaccination calendar, vaccination against HPV is carried out at the age of 12 years - the girl still, as a rule, does not live a sexual life, so the effectiveness of the manipulation will be very high.
Please note : if the girl has already had an intimate relationship with a young man( enough once), then before the vaccination it is necessary to undergo a medical examination and exclude( or confirm presence) the presence of the disease in the body.When diagnosing the human papillomavirus, vaccination becomes meaningless.
After 26 years of age, according to medical research, the introduction of a vaccine against human papillomavirus does not make sense.According to some data, during HPV vaccination, women significantly older than 30 years had a significant reduction in HPV treatment time.But note - these data have no official confirmation and are still a dubious statement.
Features of HPV vaccination
Before carrying out the vaccination, the following woman conditions should be excluded:
- Hyperthermia - increased body temperature;
- gum bleeding;
- predisposition to the formation of hematomas, even with minor physical effects on the skin surface.
In addition, it is necessary to warn the doctor about the current and earlier( within 2-3 months) medications and vaccinations being performed - this may make it necessary to correct the timing of vaccination and help predict the reaction of the body to the administration of the drug in question.
A human papillomavirus vaccine is given only by intramuscular injection - into the hip or shoulder.It is necessary to achieve the penetration of the suspension into the deep layers of the muscle tissue, so the buttocks for injection are not suitable - there is a risk of penetration of the vaccine into the subcutaneous fat layer.In this case, the effect of vaccination will be much lower, which makes the procedure almost useless.
Note : The vaccination course consists of three injections, which must be performed within 6 months.The first date of administration of the vaccine against human papillomavirus can be determined independently, the second injection is done 30 days later and the third one at 6 months after the first vaccination.
Important: : if for some reason it is necessary to postpone the second and third vaccinations against HPV, it is allowed to administer the drug 1.5-2 months after the first injection, and the third stage of vaccination can be carried out after 5-8 months.
A human papilloma virus vaccine can be administered in vaccination rooms, gynecological departments of inpatient facilities, private clinics.In some cases, it is possible to vaccinate at home - medical institutions can provide such a service.But you should know that the vaccine in question is very expensive, therefore, within the federal program, money is allocated for this procedure only in certain regions - for example, in Moscow and the Moscow Region, Yakutia, the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area and others.In all other regions, those wishing to vaccinate against the human papillomavirus will have to purchase a suspension at their own expense.But this drug has no free sale - it can be purchased only in specialized institutions - for example, in vaccination rooms. And directly injections should also be performed by a medical professional:
- first, you need to be able to introduce the suspension exactly into muscle tissue( not in the subcutaneous fat layer);
- , secondly, the regulations prescribe to record in the patient's card about the vaccination;
- third, only a specialist will be able to provide effective medical care in the rapid development of an allergic reaction to the vaccine.
Despite the confirmed safety of the vaccine against the human papillomavirus, side effects occur - each woman's body is individual and his reaction to the introduction of such drugs may be inadequate. The most common side effects are local:
- , an itch appears at the injection site - it is of a non-intensive nature and can be controlled by a woman / girl;
- appears a slight swelling;
- may have unintentional pain at the injection site;
- skin becomes red.
Note : these side effects do not require the provision of professional medical care - the described signs of an inadequate response of the body disappear after a few days.If the vaccine is in the subcutaneous fat layer, then a localized seal may appear at the injection site - this is also not considered a pathology.
If a woman is worried about the resulting seal, then you can use a hot water bottle - regular warm-ups will shorten the time to get rid of side effects.
Common side effects when administering a vaccine against human papillomavirus:
- malaise - weakness, drowsiness, apathy, loss of appetite;
- an unbearable rise in body temperature - the maximum values are 38 degrees;
- headache - it will be a constant, obtrusive, periodically subside.
The general inadequate response of the body to the drug in question also does not require the provision of emergency medical care - the maximum that can be done to facilitate well-being: take painkillers and antipyretic drugs.
Note : Symptoms of common side effects are similar to those of a common cold.Since during the vaccination the immune system is weakened( it is already involved in the production of antibodies), it is quite possible to attach a secondary infection.Therefore, you need to carefully monitor your health6 if within 2-3 days the above symptoms continue to bother, then you need to see a doctor and get an effective appointment of therapy in view of the recent vaccination.
Important: is very rare, but a vaccine against HPV can provoke an allergic reaction, up to anaphylactic shock and Quincke's edema.In this case, urgent medical care will be needed, and when predicting such a development of events, a woman needs to take antihistamine medications for 5-7 weeks( only in consultation with the doctor!).
It's up to the woman herself to make a decision about the advisability of introducing a vaccine against the human papilloma virus - you can consult a therapist or gynecologist, get the information you need online.But it is worthwhile to know that according to medical research the term "work" of the vaccine in the body is 8 years.During this period, a woman may not worry about infection with human papillomaviruses of type 16 and 18( oncogenic), but all other types of disease can enter the body.In addition, the drug in question does not serve as a complete guarantee to prevent the onset of cervical cancer - many factors are the causes of this cancer, HPV is not the only one.
Important: Vaccination against human papillomavirus has been approved by the world health organization, its effectiveness has been proven by many scientists.Statements about the link between inoculation against HPV and infertility in women are unfounded
For more details about the HPV vaccine, the specialist says:
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapeutist of the highest qualification category.