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Varicose veins of lower extremities: causes, complications, prevention

A25ce034953cbb9c39424d73fb06ced5_w600_h400_cp Varicose is the pathology in which blistering occurs.Vessels because of poor patency begin to stretch, they accumulate blood and only from time to time it is "pushed" by the force of the current.The walls of the vessels become too thin, which is manifested by the blue on the skin surface( the notorious "mesh").

Varicose veins are a very common disease, for the development of which certain predisposing factors are needed.For example, one of these is the fluctuations in the hormonal background - it is not surprising that the disease in question is more often diagnosed in women: the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, childbirth, menopause and menopause are considered the strongest "shakes" for the endocrine system of the body.

Table of contents: Causes of varicose veins on the legs Symptoms of varicose veins of the lower limbs Possible complications of leg varicose

Causes of varicose veins on the legs

The causes of varicose development can be:

  1. Long standing position.The pressure on the legs is very high, so in case of a specific labor, when a person is forced to stand for hours in a standing position, varicose veins will be inevitable.This factor is aggravated by obesity - the pressure on the lower extremities is several times greater.
  2. Genetic predisposition.Strange as it may sound, but if both parents are diagnosed with the disease in question, the probability of occurrence of varicose in their child is 70%.
  3. A sedentary lifestyle.This reason at this time is the main, phlebologists( doctors involved in diseases of veins and blood vessels) have even introduced a new term in the use of medical workers - computer varicose veins.People who spend a long time without movement, are more often 8 times treated for unpleasant symptoms of varicose veins.
  4. Disturbances in the hormonal background.This reason is more common in women - their body periodically starts to produce too little estrogen, but the so-called yellow bodies, on the contrary, are produced in more than enough quantity.According to medical studies, it is the yellow bodies that provoke the relaxation of the muscle tissue - this in turn contributes to the weakening of the vascular tone.Violation of the outflow of blood through the veins.
  5. .It can occur for purely mechanical reasons - an obstacle is formed that does not allow the release of blood: a thrombus, a tumor.

In addition, the development of varicose veins is affected by lifestyle.Doctors are well aware that the toxicity of blood vessels is affected by toxins, alcohol - hence, the use of alcohol-containing beverages can cause varicose veins.Note that in the walls of the vessels are entire plexuses of nerve endings - regular stresses, irritations, nerves and outbursts of negative emotions also affect their condition, provoking a decrease in the tone of the vessel wall.

Symptoms of varicose veins of the lower extremities

Despite the fact that the disease under consideration is diagnosed at later stages of development, it begins to manifest very early .It suffices to note only the following symptoms:

  • in the legs( mainly in the gastrocnemius muscles) there are pain after prolonged walking or performing physical exercises;
  • at night begin to worry cramps in the legs;
  • in the evening there are swelling of the legs - at first minor, after a certain time - the feet swell so that it is impossible to shoe even the room slippers.


If at this stage of development of varicose veins do not take any medical measures, the disease progresses and there are more pronounced symptoms:

  • on the skin is clearly visualized "venous network";
  • the skin acquires a dark color, it can have brownish-pink spots;
  • when probing, for example, the leg, it is easy to identify diseased veins - they are thickened and easily detectable;
  • at the site of the vascular lesion, a burning sensation appears, intensifying in the evening;
  • when lying down with raised legs, "mesh" disappears, as soon as the patient takes the usual position - appears again.


The above symptoms are the main symptoms of progressive varicose veins. Further, as the pathological process develops, the following can appear:

  • Intensive pigmentation of skin in venous lesions;
  • on palpation( palpation) clearly defined seals;
  • trophic ulcers.

Please note : in case of the appearance of an increased body temperature and general signs of an organism intoxication, it is a question of the development of any complications against the background of progressive varicose veins.A very rare symptom is bleeding from seals / nodules.

Possible complications of leg varices

The most common varicose veins are diagnosed against the background of pronounced complications of this disease - unfortunately, few people pay attention to the first signs of pathological vasodilation.

Chronic venous insufficiency

This complication of varicose veins occurs in four stages, and the expressed signs of disturbances in the vessels appear at the time of already severe course of the disease.The most common symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency are:

  • itching of the skin in the area of ​​the vascular lesion;


  • regular convulsions in the lower limbs mainly at night;
  • severe swelling;
  • stagnation in soft tissues;
  • formation of ulcers.

Thrombophlebitis of superficial veins

This type of complication of varicose is diagnosed fairly quickly for the following symptoms:

  • Flebit_2 redness of the skin in the vascular lesions;
  • pain syndrome is clearly pronounced and disrupts the habitual rhythm of life;
  • in the patient constantly elevated body temperature( within subfebrility);
  • skin in places of patients with blood vessels to the touch very hot;
  • , palpation can reveal seals in soft tissues.

The danger of this complication lies in the fact that the clotting of blood clots in blood vessels not only disrupts blood circulation, but also spreads to all nearby vessels - the thromboembolism of the arteries is often diagnosed, which in almost 100% of cases ends in a lethal outcome.

Trophic ulcer

This pathology develops in the most neglected cases of varicose veins and requires professional assistance. Trophic ulcers develop / form very slowly, so pay attention to the following precursors of the pathology:

  • skin gets unnaturally dark pigmentation with a clear localization;
  • with time in places of increased pigmentation, whitish spots appear, the skin acquires a radiance and shine.

When characteristic spots acquire unnatural shine and whiteness, one should beware of even a slight injury of them - an open wound surface immediately forms.If medical care is provided immediately, the wound is quickly delayed.But in case of ignoring of medical appointments or self-treatment, it is possible to add secondary infection to trophic ulcers - the risk of sepsis development is very high.

Pulmonary embolism


This disease most often causes a sudden lethal outcome, so doctors literally scream for the need for professional treatment of varicose veins.The essence of thromboembolism of the pulmonary artery is the occlusion of the largest blood vessels in the body, and the thrombus can initially form in the veins of the lower extremities and with blood flow slowly but surely move towards the pulmonary artery.

Symptoms of pulmonary embolism are:

  • chest pain of a pressing, harsh character;
  • collapse episodes;
  • cyanosis of nasolabial folds;
  • rattles.

Despite such pronounced signs of this complication of varicose veins, it is almost impossible to diagnose thromboembolism alone - when there are even non-intensive manifestations of the above symptoms, emergency medical care is required.

Treatment of varicose veins

Therapeutic measures can begin with the appearance of early signs of varicose veins.There are a lot of drugs for both local and general use.But it is important not only to regularly take / use them, but also to competently select specific medications, and this can only be done by a doctor.

It is very important to adhere to a certain diet when diagnosed with varicose veins:

  • refuse from flour, sweet and fat - first of all it is necessary to reduce weight, to get rid of extra pounds, if any.But even if the patient's weight is normal, reducing the amount of harmful foods used will help get rid of excessive loads on the vessels;
  • only use coffee and tea, and coffee should be diluted with milk in general.Such a restriction will help to correct the work of the cardiovascular system, reduce the likelihood of an increase in blood pressure;
  • regularly introduce into the diet freshly prepared juices from citrus, blueberry, apricot.If the doctor warns of a high probability of thrombophlebitis, juice from pumpkin will be very effective.

Please note : you can spend unloading days against the background of drinking juices - this will help to cleanse the body of toxins and relieve of excess weight.In a month there should be no more than 3 such days;

Treatment of varicose veins with folk remedies

There are prescriptions for medicines for the treatment of varicose veins and the category of folk medicine.Of course, you will first need to get advice from your doctor and do not rely solely on your ancestors' experience - control by medical workers must be carried out.

Important: home treatment for varicose veins can not be considered effective enough.

Prevention of varicose veins

Varicose veins can be prevented, for which it is recommended to adhere to the following physicians' advice:

  • competently alternate between rest and wake periods - this will help reduce the burden on the lower limbs;
  • if the work activity is related to the need to be in the same position( sitting or standing), then you need to regularly change it - sit / get up, walk down the corridor;
  • women should avoid prolonged wearing tight, narrow shoes with high heels.

It is necessary to monitor the weight - with its redundancy it is worth switching to diet food. In addition, it is recommended:

  • a day to drink at least one and a half liters of water( not milk or broths);
  • to play sports - it can be a banal morning exercise;
  • avoid too hot baths, visiting the sauna and sauna.

Varicose veins are considered quite a dangerous disease, but with timely diagnosis and the provision of competent medical care, the predictions are quite favorable.

More details about varicose veins, treatment of varicose veins and diagnosis of this disease are described in the video review:

Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapeutist of the highest qualification category.

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