Allergy to the sun - photodermatitis
Diseases that are characterized by increased sensitivity to ultraviolet rays and are accompanied by complex rashes, in medicine are classified as photodermatitis.In people, this problem is referred to as an allergy to the sun - an inadequate reaction appears to a person when he is under the sun.Interestingly, with photodermatitis, even a brief exposure to the sun ends with the appearance of blisters and the development of the inflammatory process.
This condition is very often seen among the population - according to statistics, photodermatitis is diagnosed in 20% of patients.In recent years, cases of exposure to sun allergy have become more frequent, the reason for this is the general increase in the medical education of people( they notice the first signs of photodermatitis on their skin and turn to doctors), and increased sun activity and global warming.Contents: Causes of photodermatitis Features of endogenous photodermatitis Features of exogenous photodermatitis Symptoms of photodermatitis Treatment of sun allergy Preventative measures
Causes of photodermatitis
The main reason for this inadequate reaction of the skin on the sun's rays is an increase in skin sensitization.The direct sunlight on the skin provokes a photochemical reaction - it changes the structure of substances.The result of these complex chemical processes is the hypersensitivity of the skin on the background of exposure to sunlight.
Photodermatitis can be of two types:
- endogenous - occurs against the background of metabolic disturbances in the body and / or pathologies of the immune system;
- exogenous - provoked by substances that get on the skin and under the influence of ultraviolet rays begin to change.
The following categories of citizens are at risk for developing photodermatitis:
- with light and thin skin;
- those people who had cases of diagnosing allergies in the sun( in their immediate family);
- patients with atopic or any other kind of dermatitis;
- too often using perfume and decorative cosmetics;
- abusing sunburn and solarium;
- who are involuntarily taking certain medications;
- persons who have recently undergone tattooing and / or peeling.
Features of endogenous photodermatitis
In general, this type of photodermatitis is extremely rare, therefore, both diagnostics, and examinations, and its treatment must be strictly controlled by a doctor. To endogenous photodermatitis include:
- pigmentary xeroderma;
- solar eczema;
- sunlight pruritus;
- light bulb Bazena.
Features of exogenous photodermatitis
Here everything is much simpler - any substances that get on the skin can become an impetus to the development of photodermatitis. The list of such provocateurs is quite extensive, here are just some of them:
- St. John's wort oil;
- sea buckthorn oil;
- parsley juice;
- sandalwood oil;
- rose oil;
- bergamot oil;
- juice of dill.
All these substances are contained in the products of the perfume and cosmetic industry, and the cause of the development of exogenous photodermatitis can be the pollen of plants.
Very often the reason for the development of the disease in question is the intake of certain medications. Here are the groups of tools that most often become provocative factors:
- Drugs that are actively used for the treatment of dermatological diseases - for example, Ammifurin, Oxoralen, Metvix.
- Certain antibacterial drugs( antibiotics) - Abaktal, Tetracycline, Doxycycline.
- Antidiabetic drugs, hormonal drugs, cytostatics, sulfonamides.
- Groups of medicines that are used to treat diseases of the cardiovascular system.
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs - for example, Ibuprofen, Acetylsalicylic acid.
- Contraceptives oral, neuroleptics, barbiturates, antihistamines.
The cause of photodermatitis can be aggressive peeling - this procedure damages the upper layer of the skin, it becomes hypersensitive.
Symptoms of photodermatitis
Symptoms of the disease in question are non-unique, so it is easy to confuse them with allergies, for example, for food.But the first symptoms of the disease in question appear almost immediately after exposure to the skin of the sun's rays - this is the redness of lesions and a small rash.
Note: in some people, allergy symptoms in the sun can appear not immediately, but 8-12 hours after direct exposure to sunlight on the skin.
In general, all signs of photodermatitis are divided into two groups:
- Local symptoms:
- reddening of the skin in places where there was direct exposure to sunlight;
- swelling of lesions;
- itching - it can be intense and weak;
- burning sensation in the lesion;
- blisters appear on the place of "burn", which are filled with serous or purulent fluid;
- the skin in the foci of the surface begins to actively peel off.
- General symptoms:
- weakness and malaise;
- increased body temperature;
- headache and dizziness.
Note: intensity of the indicated signs can be variable, as much depends on the type of skin, the general state of human health, the presence of allergies to various irritants.In some cases, people with photodermatitis have syncope, lowering blood pressure, bronchospasm.
Treatment of sun allergy
There is no single, specific treatment regimen for the disease in question - both drugs and procedures are selected in a strictly individual order. For the removal of local symptoms, photodermatitis is usually used:
- Methyluracil ointment;
- Spray Panthenol;
- ointment Hydrocortisone;
- Lokoid ointment.
If an inflammatory process develops in the lesion focus, it is advisable to use ointments with antibacterial effect - for example, Levomikol or Liniment Synthomycin.
If a person's condition worsens, photodermatitis is difficult, then in addition to topical drugs, doctors prescribe the patient and some medications for oral administration. These include:
- non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs;
- restorative products;
- vitamins C and E;
- B vitamins;
- medications for the normalization of liver function.
For the entire period of photodermatitis treatment it is strictly forbidden to be exposed to direct rays and the sun .And the doctors give the following recommendations:
- After washing all clothes should be thoroughly rinsed - washing powder and conditioners for laundry can become additional provocators of photodermatitis.
- Avoid skin contact with plants - do not go to nature, do not walk through meadows and fields.
- Restrict the use of decorative cosmetics, perfumes and deodorants.
- Drug use only after consultation with your doctor.
The course of treatment of the disease in question is also established on an individual basis - its duration may be 5 days or more.
If a person already has a diagnosed photodermatitis, then he must strictly follow certain rules of conduct to prevent exacerbations of the disease. These preventative measures include:
- Before sun exposure in the sun, sunscreen with a high level of protection( at least 50) must be applied to the skin.
- Being on the beach to use an umbrella or canopy - from sunbathing it is necessary to completely refuse.
- Adjust diet - it should be dominated by foods rich in vitamin B: cocoa, black and red currants, green tea, fish, chicken eggs, liver of birds and beef.
- In sunny weather, you should always wear a wide-brimmed hat and sunglasses.
- In the spring-summer period, use the minimum amount of perfume products, deodorants and decorative cosmetics.
- Clothing in summer should be made of natural fabrics and light color.
- After consultation with a doctor, it is possible to use drugs as a prophylactic course to improve liver function and improve immunity.
- Any medicines can be taken only after consultation with the attending physician and careful study of the instruction - you need to exclude the photosensitizing properties of the medication.
But even if the person is absolutely healthy, then he needs to take some preventive measures so that the allergy to the sun does not suddenly appear on the skin. What the experts advise:
- It is compulsory to use all possible sunscreens.
- Give preference to sunbathing in the morning to 10 hours and in the evening after 18 hours.
- If drugs are to be taken, then it is necessary to study the instructions and, at the indicated high photosensitizing properties of the medicine, to refuse admission during the summer period of the year.
- Before going to the resort, in no case should you conduct aggressive procedures in beauty salons - refuse from piercing, tattooing, peeling.
- Do not abuse tan, do not go unnecessarily to the solarium.
It is worth remembering that the presence of photodermatitis does not at all indicate that people need to avoid sunny days in every possible way.Most often the disease in question occurs in an acute form, very rarely it passes into a chronic form of the flow.But even in this case, doctors can offer patients procedures, medications and stabilize the patient's condition.
Tsygankova Yana Alexandrovna, medical reviewer, therapist of the highest qualification category