Microinsult: symptoms, causes of development, treatment and rehabilitation period
The official term "microinsult" does not exist, but this name for a particular pathological condition is often used even by people with medical education.A micro stroke is usually understood as a transitory( transient) disorder of the cerebral circulation.Symptomatic, similar to the clinical signs of a stroke, spontaneously comes to naught within 1 day.In some cases, signs of a micro-stroke are present for only a few minutes, and the patient often can not even suspect that there was a short-term disorder of cerebral circulation.In the event that the characteristic neurological symptomatology persists for more than 24 hours or progresses, the patient is given the official diagnosis of "stroke".Due to the violation of blood supply in the brain tissue, point damage develops.Since the pathological process affects very small areas of the structure, there are no abnormalities characteristic of the "classic" stroke.Identify the once transferred microinsult is possible only in retrospect with postmortem examination of brain tissue.
Causes of microstroke development
In most cases, this pathology develops against the background of an atherosclerotic lesion of cerebral blood vessels.Characteristic for this disease plaques cause blockage of the lumen of small branches of arteries feeding the brain.Separate tissue sites begin to suffer from hypoxia( oxygen deficiency), which leads to small-scale pathological changes in the structure. Often microinsults accompany severe somatic diseases, the symptomatology of which "masks" the signs of transient disorders of blood supply.Very likely from development in hypertensive patients, especially if there are hypertensive crises.In such cases, small hemorrhages( hemorrhages) usually occur.Stroke-specific neurologic symptoms in some cases develop in parallel with the "clinic" of myocardial infarction, which causes difficulties in diagnosis.It is even accepted to isolate the cerebral form of the infarction.It is characterized by the predominance of neurological signs, and an accurate diagnosis can be made only after the removal of the electrocardiogram.Against the background of disturbances of the heart rhythm, the development of micro-strokes occurs according to the ischemic type.Due to arrhythmias, the smallest thrombi can form in the left atrium, the size of which, nevertheless, is quite sufficient to block the branches of the cerebral arteries.Transient ischemic attack is stopped as the adequate blood supply is restored.Also, irregular heart rhythm often lead to a significant drop in blood pressure, which also significantly worsens the blood supply to individual parts of the brain. The risk of micro-strokes in people with the following diseases is extremely high:
- vasculitis( inflammation of the walls of blood vessels);
- diabetes mellitus.
For the listed pathologies, more or less pronounced damage to the vascular walls is characteristic.Please note: risk is very high in people with overweight or diagnosed obesity, as well as in smokers and alcohol abusers.The likelihood of micro-stroke increases with hypodynamia( a sedentary lifestyle) and high meteosensitivity.
Signs of a micro stroke
With a micro stroke, the symptoms are not always characterized by specificity.Many patients write off them for differences in atmospheric pressure, weather change, physical or psychoemotional stresses and chronic fatigue. The first signs of a micro stroke are:
- appearance of "flies" before the eyes;
- headache of varying intensity;
- general weakness and malaise;
The neurological clinical signs of a micro stroke and women and men also include:
- increased sensitivity to bright light and loud sounds;
- temporary visual acuity reduction;
- numbness of the face and( or) limbs;
- state of "stunnedness";
- a brief impairment of consciousness;
- slurred speech;
- hearing impairment;
- more or less pronounced violations of coordination of movements( including uncertain gait,
- a sharp increase or, conversely, a fall in blood pressure.)
The most common classical signs of a micro-stroke develop in men: the patient may be present far from all symptoms, But only some of them, but 4-5 signs are already enough to make a diagnosis.Frauds on their own pass for several hours or even minutes.Note: the appearance of neurological signs is an ocheAlmost 50% of people who underwent a microstroke are subsequently diagnosed with a large focal brain lesion, i.e. stroke. The first signs of a micro-stroke in women may be atypical. In the fair sex at the age of 18 to 40, the risk of disordersCerebral circulation is higher in comparison with men of the same age category Often the signs of the development of violations are more visible from the outside.The environment should be alerted if a person began to talk incoherently or suddenly stopped talking, began to stammer and drop objects.The interlocutor may stop responding to an appeal to him.The patient may be in a state of prostration and look as if drunk.
Treatment of a micro stroke
Important: If signs appear that allow suspected development of a micro-stroke, an ambulance team should be called immediately.Remember that neurological symptoms can talk about the development of a large focal stroke or mask a heart attack. Before the arrival of the doctor, the victim must ensure complete rest, put him with an elevated headrest.In the room you need to ensure the flow of fresh air.Tight clothes better to remove or at least unbutton the collar to facilitate breathing. At home, it is recommended to make a hot foot bath, and inside give to take the patient soothing on a natural basis( hawthorn extract or valerian).It will help to slightly reduce the symptoms of a light massage of the head and neck area.If the micro stroke is detected, the measures should be directed to the treatment of the underlying disease, which could cause a transient circulatory disturbance.All patients require a complete examination.According to the indications, the attending physician can prescribe drugs from the group of antiplatelet agents( reducing the risk of thrombosis), nootropics( improving metabolism in the brain), as well as vasodilators( for vasodilatation) and blood pressure lowering agents.
What should I do after a micro stroke?
After a micro stroke you need to completely stop smoking and drinking alcohol, try to consume only healthy food and think about normalizing the work and rest.If the work is associated with persistent physical stress or psychoemotional stress, then the occupation is better to change.It is advisable to undergo medical examinations at the place of residence at least once in 3 years.Timely identified health problems will prevent recurrence and development of more serious pathologies.The attending physician can prescribe remedies that purify the body and normalize metabolic processes for recovery. Important: several migrated microstroke may be the cause of irreversible damage.It is possible to reduce the intellect up to dementia( dementia). For more information on symptoms, signs of micro-stroke and methods of treating this pathology, see this video review:
Konev Alexander, therapist