Pain in the heart: nature, causes, treatment
Pain in the heart.It is this complaint that most often sounds from patients who come to see a therapist.This syndrome makes you worry and worry from the first seconds - according to statistics, heart pains force a person to seek medical help from the first attack, and not start self-treatment.Table of contents: Pain in the heart: symptoms and diagnoses
Heart pain: symptoms and diagnoses
Doctors already can diagnose a patient's complaints in advance - for various violations in the work of the main organ, pain can be differentiated.
IHD is ischemic heart disease
This definition combines two types of cardiac pathologies - angina and myocardial infarction.Both are characterized by pain in the heart, but there are differences in the nature of the pain syndrome, and in the overall clinical picture.
More information about coronary heart disease is in the video review:
In this condition, pain occurs due to a significant narrowing of the blood vessels of the heart( due to atherosclerosis or a large number of cholesterol plaques), resulting inInadequate amount of oxygen enters the main body.In the vessels a lactic acid accumulation is formed, which causes pain syndrome.According to statistics, angina is often diagnosed at the age of 40 years and older, and the pains become most intense during physical exertion.
For the disease under consideration, acute attacks are typical, pain burning, "diffuse" throughout the chest, rapidly passing after taking certain medications( for example, nitroglycerin).
Note : an attack of pain with angina can go undulating - unpleasant sensations then intensify, then subside, the pain radiates to the scapula or arm, neck and interscapular space.
Cardiologists distinguish two types of pain during angina:
- at a voltage - this is considered an easier degree of development of pathology, because the pain syndrome occurs only with physical exertion, increased blood pressure, stress, nervous breakdowns;
- at rest - uncomfortable sensations occur even during sleep, are not related to stress and mean that angina pectoris acquires a health threatening character.
This pathology is considered a "logical" continuation of advanced angina.The essence of heart attack - coronary vessels narrow so much that the flow of blood to the tissues of the heart completely stops - some cells die. For myocardial infarction the following symptoms will be characteristic:
- burning, sharp pain behind the sternum, which does not stop within 5 minutes and does not change in the direction of improvement even after taking the usual medicines;
- sharply decreases blood pressure - in some cases, the patient loses consciousness( fainting);
- skin becomes pale, the appearance of cold sticky sweat;
- the patient experiences the strongest fear of death and may panic.
The causes of myocardial infarction are described in this review:
Important : heart pains characteristic of myocardial infarction require immediate intervention of medical personnel - the condition threatens the patient's life.
A significant increase in blood pressure values is classified in medicine as hypertension and characterized by burning, aching pain in the chest.
The pain syndrome due to the increase in blood pressure is easily differentiated because it is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- there are "flies" before your eyes;
- severe headache, which is more often localized in the temporal region;
- non-critical dizziness;
- is felt in the body of fever, the face is hyperemic( has a pronounced reddening).
Heart pain in this condition occurs most often with the development of hypertensive crisis - blood pressure rises suddenly and immediately to critical levels.
Any heart pain that is not associated with a violation of oxygen supply, inflammatory or infectious processes in the main organ, is called cardiomyopathy.In this pathological condition, the pain has a variable character - aching or abrupt, paroxysmal or permanent, burning or stitching.Pain syndrome can occur both with excessive physical exertion and at rest.Most often, cardiomyopathy is caused by a metabolic disorder in the body.
Note: pain in the heart in this pathology is in some cases eliminated by the use of nitroglycerin.
The inflammatory process that develops in the tissues of the heart muscle is classified as myocarditis and is always accompanied by pain in the region of the heart.Inflammatory process can be caused by viruses, pathogenic bacteria and other pathogenic microorganisms.
Characteristics of pain in the heart with myocarditis is as follows :
- pain can be aching or cutting;
- after taking nitroglycerin under the language of relief does not occur;
- syndrome is not associated with excessive physical exertion or nervous / psycho-emotional state.
Heart pain in myocarditis is joined:
- general deterioration of health - drowsiness, weakness, fast fatigue;
- hyperthermia( fever) to subfebrile indicators;
- heart rate increases, but it can at any time and freeze for a few seconds.
Note: myocarditis can be completely asymptomatic, but this in medical practice is extremely rare.
The outer shell of the heart is called the pericardium and it is the inflammation of this tissue that provokes the development of pericarditis. With this pathology, the pain syndrome is of a very definite nature:
- Never irradiates into the left arm or neck.
- The strongest pain sensations are localized - the patient marks them below and to the left of the thorax.
- Pericarditis is the only pathology of the heart in which pain can "give" to the right side of the chest, the right arm.
- The pain is sharp, sharp.
- A patient with pericarditis will look for a position in which the intensity of pain decreases - usually a person sits with a low head inclined.
This disease is characterized by a systemic nature in which the nervous regulation of the functional processes of the heart is disturbed.Pay attention: pains in the heart against the background of vegetative-vascular dystonia occur most often in adolescence.
Doctors distinguish several types of pain in the heart area against a background of vegetative-vascular dystonia:
- Simple cardialgia.The pain in this case will be noisy( very rarely takes a painful character), short and does not require the taking of any specific medications.
- Cardialgia of a vegetative crisis.The pain syndrome is very long, but there are no acute attacks.In the case of cardialgia of the vegetative crisis, in addition to pain, the following symptoms will be present:
- shortness of breath;
- heart palpitations;
- sensation that there is not enough air;
- a distinct sense of fear of death.
- Sympathetic cardialgia.The pain is burning, localized in the retrograde region.A distinctive feature of sympathetic cardialgia is that when the ribs are felt, the pain syndrome becomes more intense.
More information about vegetative-vascular dystonia is told by a specialist:
This is a disease that provokes a violation in the rhythm of the heart. Arrhythmia is easy to diagnose on its own, because the uneven work of the main organ is always pronounced bright :
- heart beats either too often, or literally freezes for a few seconds;
- pain in the chest area is of a non-intensive nature;
- appears sudden general weakness and severe dizziness.
With arrhythmia, the pain radiates to the left arm, the left side of the neck and the interscapular space.
Heart pain not related to organ problems
Heart pain can indicate pathologies of very different systems and organs. It's interesting that doctors listen attentively to the patient and note that if the patient talks in great detail about pains in the heart, describing them "hourly", then most likely we are talking about the irradiation of the pain syndrome into the heart area from other organs of :
- Peptic ulcer diseaseDuodenal / stomach and gastritis.Problems in the work of the organs of the gastrointestinal tract are manifested by severe pain in the heart.To differentiate pain from the stomach with a real heart attack, it is worthwhile to know which symptoms are accompanied by a false pain in the heart with stomach pathologies:
- nausea and vomiting;Expressed
- abdominal distention;
- in the mouth there is a sour taste.
- Gastroesophageal syndrome.With such a disease, there is a regular release into the esophagus of a portion of hydrochloric acid from the stomach, which provokes a false heart attack.The pain syndrome is characterized by stitching and burning, it can be localized to the left in the chest.
- Pneumonia left-sided.In the inflammatory process in the lungs with localization on the left, severe, severe pain in the region of the heart can occur.They are aching and pricking, they often panic, especially if the imitation of a heart attack occurs for the first time.To differentiate pulmonary pain from the cardiac, the following symptoms should be noted or eliminated:
- cough of a dry nature;
- increased body temperature;
- pallor of the skin;
- severe dyspnea.
In general, doctors believe that any pathology can provoke a false heart attack.For example, with acute respiratory infections and flu, intercostal neuralgia and osteochondrosis, there will be heart pains that only the specialist can differentiate.
Pain in the heart - treatment
With the appearance of the first heart attack a person immediately appeals for help to a cardiologist - pain in the heart really causes a strong sense of fear of death. The physician should conduct a complete examination of the patient:
- a survey and examination of the patient;
- ultrasound examination of thoracic organs;
- computed tomography.
Only after the exact diagnosis is made will recommendations on the treatment of heart pathologies that provoke the onset of pain in the chest.If the inflammatory process takes place in the tissues of the heart, then it is necessary to undergo a course of treatment with antibacterial drugs( antibiotics), with viral etiology of pain in the heart - antiviral drugs are mandatory.For each disease that causes pain in the heart, an individual treatment regimen should be developed.
We also recommend that you watch a video that details the preventive measures: following the advice of doctors, you can reduce the risks of developing cardiovascular diseases. / P & gt;
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapeutist of the highest qualification category.