Hypertension: symptoms, degrees, treatment and prevention
Hypertension( hypertension) is a serious chronic disease, for which a persistent increase in blood pressure is characteristic.A number of practicing physicians refer to hypertension as "an invisible killer", since this diagnosis is often made by resuscitators, and in asymptomatic conditions - only by the pathologist.Contents: Danger of hypertension Symptoms of hypertension Etiology and pathogenesis of hypertension Hypertension or hypertension: what is the difference?Classification of hypertension Treatment of hypertension Recommended reading:
The Danger of Hypertension
A person does not always suspect that he has this pathology, since many clinical manifestations of hypertension have obvious similarities to the symptoms of normal overwork.The disease very often leads to the development of severe complications, including life-threatening conditions.In particular, if it was previously believed that atherosclerotic changes in blood vessels lead to myocardial infarction and hemorrhagic strokes, it is now established that only the presence of hypertension is sufficient for the development of these conditions.
Arterial hypertension, like a number of other chronic diseases, can not be completely cured, but its development can be prevented.Even with an already diagnosed diagnosis, adequate therapeutic measures allow minimizing the manifestations of hypertensive disease, greatly improving the quality of life of the patient.
Please note : the risk of complications almost directly depends on the patient's age.If hypertension is diagnosed in a young person, the prognosis is less favorable than in patients of the middle age group.
To "catch" the disease at an early stage, when the changes are reversible, you need to regularly measure blood pressure.If periodic measurements often reveal numbers that exceed normal values, correction of blood pressure is necessary.
Numbers are considered to be normal:
- for people aged 16-20 - 100/70 - 120/80 mm.Gt;P.
- in the 20-40 years - 120/70 - 130/80;
- 40-60 - no higher than 135/85;
- 60 years and more - no higher than 140/90.
Symptoms of hypertension
Latent hypertension or the initial stage of the disease can be suspected if periodically noted:
- unmotivated sense of anxiety;
- hyperhidrosis( increased sweating);
- hyperemia( redness) of the skin of the facial area;
- small spots before the eyes;
- memory degradation;
- low working capacity;
- irritability without reason;
- puffiness of eyelids and faces in the morning;
- heart palpitations at rest;
- numbness of the fingers.
These symptoms may occur regularly or be noted rarely.It is impossible not to attach importance to them, since the disease is very insidious.These clinical manifestations require an urgent change in lifestyle, because a timely correction does not lead to a sufficiently rapid progression of the disease.As the pathology develops, the list of persistent symptoms of hypertension expands.Addition of coordination of movements, drop in visual acuity are added.
Note: even the presence of only a few of the characteristic symptoms from the above list is the basis for an immediate visit to the doctor.Especially carefully you need to listen to your body if there are certain risk factors for hypertension.Self-treatment is dangerous;Uncontrolled use of drugs can only worsen the situation.
Etiology and pathogenesis of hypertension
The onset of hypertension is due to certain disorders in the central nervous system and the autonomic nervous system that are responsible for the vascular tone.
Important: in men from 35 to 50 years and in women in the menopausal period the probability of developing hypertension is increased.
One of the most important risk factors for hypertension is a burdened family history.In patients with hereditary predisposition, increased permeability of cell membranes is revealed.
External factors that provoke the development of the disease include strong and frequent psychoemotional stresses( nervous shocks, severe experiences).They are the cause of the release of adrenaline, which increases the volume of cardiac output and increases the frequency of myocardial contractions.In combination with burdened heredity, this often provides the appearance of hypertension.
For immediate reasons leading to hypertension, you can refer:
- dysfunction of the nervous system;
- disturbances of ion exchange at the cellular and tissue level( increase in the level of sodium and potassium ions);
- metabolic disorders;
- atherosclerotic vascular lesions.
Important: in people who are overweight, the risk of hypertension is 3-4 times higher than in others.
The risk of hypertension increases significantly with alcohol abuse, nicotine dependence, when consuming large amounts of table salt and hypodynamia.
Periodic increase in blood pressure causes the heart to function with increased load, which leads to hypertrophy of the myocardium, and subsequently - to the wear of the heart muscle.As a consequence, chronic heart failure( CHF) develops, and insufficient nutrition of organs and tissues leads to severe consequences and the development of a number of concomitant diseases.High pressure causes thickening of the vascular walls and narrowing of the lumen of the vessel.Gradually, the walls become brittle, which increases the risk of hemorrhages( including the development of hemorrhagic strokes).A permanent spasm of blood vessels supports high blood pressure, closing this range of disorders.
Please note : normal BP fluctuations during the day do not exceed 10 units.In hypertensive patients, figures may differ by 50 mm.Gt;Art.And more.
Hypertension may result from the administration of individual pharmacological agents( FS).
With extreme caution, the following groups of FS should be taken:
- hormonal contraceptives;
- Supplements for suppressing appetite;
- some anti-inflammatory drugs( in particular - Indomethacin).
Hypertension or hypertension: what is the difference?
By hypertension is understood the rise in blood pressure above 140/90.We can say that hypertension and hypertension are practically identical concepts.But hypertension is a disease, and hypertension is one of its symptoms.Approximately in every tenth patient, abnormally high blood pressure is a manifestation of another pathology.
The following types of symptomatic hypertension are distinguished:
Classification of hypertension
To select the optimal treatment strategy, it is necessary to first determine the type of this pathology.
For etiology it is common to distinguish:
- primary hypertension( it is also called idiopathic or essential);
- symptomatic hypertension( against other pathologies or taking certain drugs).
By the nature of the current, hypertension is divided into:
- benign( gradually progressing form comprising 3 stages);
- malignant( severe, usually - endocrine etiology).
For a benign form that is diagnosed in most cases, a gradual development with lesion of certain organs is characteristic.
Malignant form is relatively rare, can be detected even in childhood.It is characterized by a stable high blood pressure and severe complications.Often develop decompensated heart failure, hypertensive encephalopathy and a sharp violation of the functional activity of the kidneys.
By the degree of increase in blood pressure is allocated:
- mild hypertension( blood pressure indicators - no higher than 140/90, taking medication is usually not required);
- moderate form( 1-2 stages, pressure up to 180/110 mm Hg);
- severe hypertension( stage 3 or malignant form).
Note : The terms "soft" and "heavy" only talk about the numbers of blood pressure, but not about the general condition.
Specialists distinguish three stages of hypertension in a benign course:
- The 1st( preclinical) stage of hypertension.There may be mild headaches and not very pronounced sleep disorders.AD does not increase beyond 140-160 / 95-100 and decreases after a full rest.
- 2nd stage of hypertension.There is a narrowing of the arteries and hypertrophy of the left ventricle of the heart.The blood pressure is higher and stays stable, and at rest the numbers reach 160-180 / 100-110 mm.Gt;Art.In the laboratory study of the tests, an increase in the level of creatinine in the blood and protein in the urine.
- 3rd stage of hypertension.Angina develops, cerebral blood flow disorder, hemorrhages in the fundus, aortic wall separation.Especially high in this case, the risk of heart attacks, strokes and vision loss.
Note: in some patients may have a so-called."Hypertension of a white coat".With her, the symptomatology is manifested only in the presence of medical workers.
The is a special form of pathology, the hypertensive crisis.This is an extreme manifestation of the disease, which is characterized by a sharp increase in blood pressure to critical parameters.Severe condition with intense headache, nausea and vomiting can persist up to a day.Due to impaired cerebral blood flow, intracranial pressure increases.Depending on the mechanism of increasing blood pressure, eukinetic as well as hypo- and hyperkinetic crises are isolated.
Important: for hypertensive crisis it is important to give the patient first aid and urgently call an ambulance.
Hypertension can be isolated systolic or diastolic.With this form, only the "upper" or only "lower" figures of blood pressure increase.
By refractory hypertension, it is customary to mean the form of the disease in which therapy with three or more pharmacological agents is ineffective.
Treatment of hypertensionWe recommend that you read:
Treatment for hypertension can include both medication and non-pharmacological methods, as well as traditional medicine.
Drugs indicated for hypertension
Drugs are prescribed if non-pharmacologic therapy of 1 degree of disease does not have a positive effect within 3-4 months or a stage 2 disease is diagnosed.Monotherapy( i.e., the use of a single PS) is indicated.The "first-line" agent does not affect the metabolism of lipids and carbohydrates, does not lead to fluid retention, does not disrupt electrolyte balance, does not exert a depressing effect on the central nervous system and does not provoke a sharp increase in blood pressure after cancellation.
Combinations of β-blockers with calcium antagonists, diuretics or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors can be shown in stage 2-3.It is also possible to combine ACE inhibitors with diuretics or calcium antagonists.
In severe hypertension, combinations of 3-4 drugs belonging to the groups mentioned above, as well as α-adrenoblockers, are sometimes prescribed.
Treatment of hypertension with folk remedies
Traditional medicine in hypertension recommends the reception of a decoction of uncooked raw sunflower seeds, a mixture of grated lemon, cranberry and wild rose berries, water infusion onions, beet juice or tincture on the leaves of plantain.
Non-pharmacological treatments are indicated at grade 1.When hypertension is important to abandon bad habits, to observe a diet with a limited content of sodium chloride( salt) and animal fats.Alternatives to pharmacological drugs can be acupuncture therapy, acupuncture, auto-training and massage.Patients are advised to strictly adhere to the regimen, take antioxidant medications and fortified phytopreparations.
Helps with hypertension gymnastics.Regular physical doses contribute to the development of a pronounced antihypertensive effect.Exercises should be performed daily for 30 minutes, increasing the load gradually.
Remember that if you are diagnosed with hypertension, then with a sharp deterioration in general condition, you should immediately call a doctor at home!Before his visit, it is better to take a semi-sitting position, make a hot foot bath or put mustard on the calves of your legs, take Valocordin( 30-35 drops) and your "usual" medicine to reduce blood pressure.With pain behind the breastbone, you need to put a capsule of Nitroglycerin under the tongue, and with a severe headache - take a diuretic.
Prevention of hypertension requires the conduct of a healthy lifestyle, nutrition, compliance with work and rest, as well as monitoring blood pressure.
For more information on the treatment of arterial hypertension, see this video review:
Konev Alexander, the therapist