Okey docs

Conjunctivitis: symptoms, forms, diagnosis and treatment

Conjunctivitis Conjunctiva is a mucous eye that lines the eyelid( posterior surface) and the eye itself.It is a fairly thin film, the task of which is the secretion of the components of the tear fluid and protection of the eye apparatus from ingress of foreign bodies, bacteria, etc. into it.Conjunctivitis is considered to be an inflammatory process on the eye mucosa.Given the fact that it happens to be different, they will allocate a whole group of conjunctivitis, depending on the main infectious agent.This disease with the same frequency occurs in both children and adults. Conjunctivitis: causes Conjunctivitis: symptoms and types Conjunctivitis in pregnancy Conjunctivitis in children Diagnosis of conjunctivitis Viral conjunctivitis: particularities of treatment Recommended:

Conjunctivitis: causes of

The main causes of inflammation in the conjunctiva are the following:

  • bacteria( staphylococci, streptococci, gonococci, etc.);
  • hematogenous route of infection( with chicken pox, ARI, measles, the infection spreads through the body through the blood);
  • fungi;
  • bathing in dirty water;
  • viruses;
  • "snow blindness";
  • misuse of contact lenses;
  • metabolic disorders of a different nature;
  • chronic inflammatory processes of nasal sinuses and lacrimal passages;
  • use of cosmetics with expired shelf life;
  • subcooling;
  • allergic reaction( pollen, smoke, chemicals, dust);
  • eye strain;
  • protozoa( chlamydia);
  • vitamin deficiency;
  • eye diseases( astigmatism, myopia, hypermetropia);
  • sensitivity to medicines.

Conjunctivitis: symptoms and types

Conjunctivitis The clinical picture of this pathology depends on the type of infectious agent or the cause that caused it.There are several types of conjunctivitis, each of which has a typical symptomatology. Concerning the course of the clinical process, the following forms are distinguished:

  • Acute conjunctivitis - characterized by sudden development of symptoms, redness of the eyes, the presence of pinpoint hemorrhages, edema of the eyelids, excretion of the discharge from the eye;
  • chronic conjunctivitis - very often it affects both eyes, it is lethargic and the clinic grows gradually( usually occurs in other chronic pathologies in the body).

Each type of conjunctivitis always has a set of standard signs of the disease in the form of eyelid edema, redness of the eyes, photophobia, lacrimation.In this case, each species of this disease differs typical only for her symptom complex. To date, this classification of conjunctivitis is used, taking into account the causative agent :

  • Viral conjunctivitis.Very often it develops in parallel with a common viral infection, herpes, for example.With viral conjunctivitis, the main symptoms are itching and lacrimation, which is separated from the eyes, which has a non-inflammatory nature, the inflammatory process quickly passes from one eye to the other.Among the general symptoms also subfebrile condition, runny nose and sore throat are observed.
  • Allergic conjunctivitis.With it, patients in the first place complain of terrible itching in the eyes, swelling of the eyelids, in some cases there may be pain.Often this kind of conjunctivitis accompanies an allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma.The variety of symptoms depends mainly on the nature of the allergen.
  • Medicinal conjunctivitis.This is a common phenomenon, especially in those who take many medications.It develops within 6 hours after taking the medicine.The clinic is growing very fast, burning, itching and plentiful discharge of mucous nature are attached.
  • Bacterial conjunctivitis.It is usually caused by bacteria such as pneumococci, gonococci, streptococci, staphylococcus.Distinctive features of this disease - detachable, which has a cloudy yellow or gray color and a viscous consistency, coalescence of the eyelids, especially after sleep.Also often there is a lesion of the skin around the eye, dryness of the conjunctiva itself.Inflammatory process can be observed both on one eye, and on both.
  • Fungal conjunctivitis.It is formed as a result of a pathogenic effect on the conjunctiva of various species of fungi.Yeast-like and mold fungi, actinomycetes get into the eyes from the soil, from unwashed fruits and vegetables, through dirty hands.
  • Chlamydial conjunctivitis.It occurs in 10-30% of all conjunctivitis and infants , which get infected from sick mothers, are most often affected by them.Often occurs without symptoms, therefore has a chronic form.Over time, the patient is observed moderately pronounced puffiness of the eyelids, consolidation of the conjunctiva itself, uninvolved detachable from one eye.
  • Purulent conjunctivitis.Its development was provoked by some representatives of gram-negative microflora( Klebsiella, Proteus, intestinal and Pseudomonas aeruginosa).This conjunctivitis is the most dangerous, because with its progression without treatment, the risk of corneal damage increases at times.At it patients complain of a burning sensation, an edema, reddening of eyes, purulent viscous allocation.Then the ocular discomfort is attached, when the person is constantly screwed up, the eyes become excessively sensitive to light.
  • Adenoviral conjunctivitis .It is observed in parallel or immediately before the defeat of the upper respiratory tract.Has an acute onset, manifests with lachrymation and redness, edema in some cases there are pinpoint hemorrhages, there are not many discharges, small follicular rashes form on the lower conjunctival.Conjunctivitis passes from one eye to another.
  • Conjunctivitis as a result of contact with the eyes of chemical and toxic substances.When he is sick, they complain only about pain in the eyes, without the absence of other characteristic symptoms.

Note: most often purulent conjunctivitis in adults develops as a result of contact with a sick animal or human. Typical manifestations of the most common forms of conjunctivitis: Types of conjunctivitis

Conjunctivitis in pregnancy

The main difference is illnesses from others that arise during the bearing of a child in a woman, this is that conjunctivitis can not harm the fetus.It occurs during pregnancy with typical symptoms: redness, irritation, photophobia, discharge, lachrymation.

Conjunctivitis in a child

Conjunctivitis in children Conjunctivitis is most common in newborns who become infected from their mothers through birthmarks through various viruses and bacterial infections.According to the characteristic symptoms, one can independently imagine what kind of conjunctivitis the baby has in order to take correct measures of first aid.It is necessary to take into account the features of the course of this disease in childhood:

  • the presence of purulent discharge reveals the bacterial nature of conjunctivitis;
  • appearance of eye irritation, redness, but without the presence of pus - this is a sign of a viral or allergic disease;
  • if antibiotics do not give effect, then conjunctivitis is not bacterial or it is caused by a stable flora to this antibiotic;

Note: conjunctivitis in newborns is caused by chlamydia in 40% of cases.

Diagnosis of conjunctivitis

The doctor diagnoses on the basis of complaints that the patient presents.Also, the ophthalmologist conducts an objective examination, collects an anamnesis in order to determine the cause of the illness and choose the appropriate therapy.If there is any doubt about the accuracy of the diagnosis, then additional studies are carried out:

  • virologic;
  • bacteriological;
  • allergens;
  • cytological.

Diagnosis of conjunctivitis Important : antibioticogram with conjunctivitis is performed to determine the sensitivity of the bacterium to antibacterial drugs.

Treatment of conjunctivitis

It is important before treating conjunctivitis, establish its cause, so that therapy is effective and does not cause complications.This pathology is treated by an ophthalmologist, and self-medication in this case can only exacerbate the situation.The basic dosage form that is used for conjunctivitis is a drop.That is, the basis of treatment is local.

Viral conjunctivitis: treatment features

  • Conjunctivitis: features of treatment This type of inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eye requires the appointment of antiviral drops, of which the most commonly assigned representatives of the interferon group.
  • If the virus infection is generalized, then taking the tablets is required.
  • This symptom as an itch is eliminated by the use of corticosteroid drops.
  • To reduce the severity of symptoms, use also an artificial tear.
  • If a bacterial agent is attached, antibiotics should be included in the treatment regimen.

Allergic conjunctivitis: features of therapy

  • Steroid drugs are prescribed in more complex cases.
  • To eliminate itching, prescribe antihistamine drops.
  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used to relieve inflammation.
  • To eliminate dryness of conjunctiva use artificial tear.
  • Antiallergic drugs are also prescribed as tablets( claritin, suprastin, tavegil).
  • Locally, hormones( prednisolone, hydrocortisone) are also used.

Treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis

  • The main therapy is the administration of antibiotics in the form of ointments and drops: tetracycline, gentamicin or erythromycin ointment, representatives of the group of fluoroquinolones.

Important : if conjunctivitis therapy is selected correctly, the relief comes fairly quickly, and all unpleasant symptoms disappear.

Conjunctivitis in children: treatment features

In childhood, the treatment of this disease has certain characteristics, it is important to take them into account in order to provide the child with first aid and, most importantly, do no harm at the same time.Important points in the treatment of conjunctivitis:

  • Conjunctivitis in children Before visiting an ophthalmologist, you do not need to do anything yourself.
  • If a doctor's visit is not possible urgently, then it is allowed to drip into the eyes of the albucid( if there is a suspicion of a bacterial viral aetiology of conjunctivitis).
  • If the disease is allergic, it is necessary to give the child an antihistamine.
  • If bacterial or viral conjunctivitis is confirmed, rinse the eye with chamomile broth or furacil every 2 hours.
  • Movement during washing should be directed to the nose from the temple.
  • If crusts were formed( which is often observed with purulent conjunctivitis), then they need to be removed with gauze napkins( sterile).For each eye use a separate napkin.
  • In case of allergic form, eye rinsing is not performed.
  • If the inflammation is present in one eye, then both are treated.
  • It is forbidden to apply a blindfold to children with conjunctivitis in children, as this provokes additional multiplication of bacteria and can cause injury to the sore throat.
  • Only children who have been prescribed by a doctor can drip into the eyes.
  • Ointment must be stored behind the lower eyelid.

The pediatrician tells about symptoms, causes of development and methods of treating conjunctivitis in children in this video review:

Conjunctivitis: proven folk remedies

  • Conjunctivitis Infusion of rose petals.To make it, use a spoonful of dried petals, which are poured 200 ml of boiling water.Insist 30 minutes and can be used for rubbing the eyes.
  • The dried leaves of aloe are also used for tinctures, which are washed with eyes and make compresses with it.If fresh aloe juice is taken, it is diluted with boiled water 1:10.
  • Tincture from the roots of the althea is prepared by infusing raw materials( 100 g) in 200 ml of cold boiled water for at least 6 hours.The eye is washed with a ready infusion.

Forecast

With conjunctivitis, the prognosis depends on the timely treatment started.In most cases, it is favorable, since irreversible changes in the conjunctiva do not occur.Complications are possible only in case of involvement in the inflammatory process of the cornea, which is manifested by a decrease in visual acuity.

Prevention of conjunctivitis

The main rule of prevention of this disease is observance of personal hygiene rules: we must not forget about washing hands with soap, do not rub your eyes with your hands, use only an individual towel.In ARVI should only use disposable napkins, not handkerchiefs.Prevention of allergic conjunctivitis is the definition of an allergen and its elimination. Konev Alexander, Therapeutist


Cheeks on the eye: treatment

Cheeks on the eye: treatment

The eyewash is the result of the penetration of a pathogenic microflora into the follicle of ...

Read More

Macular degeneration of the eye

Macular degeneration of the eye

One of the main causes of visual impairment in adulthood is age-related macular degeneration....

Read More

Conjunctivitis: symptoms, forms, diagnosis and treatment

Conjunctivitis: symptoms, forms, diagnosis and treatment

Conjunctiva is a mucous eye that lines the eyelid( posterior surface) and the eye itself.It is ...

Read More