Myopia - causes of development, treatment and correction
Mar 22, 2018
Myopia is a pathology of the organs of vision, which is characterized by the fact that the image of objects is formed before the retina.People with this problem can see very well at close range, but the objects at some distance will be vague, with indistinct borders - that's why the problem in the people is called "nearsightedness".Table of contents: Causes of nearsightedness development Nearsightedness of progressive type Treatment / correction of myopia
Ophthalmologists differentiate three types of myopia( nearsightedness):
- weak - the level of vision will correspond to 3 diopters and less;
- average - the level of vision becomes lower and is 3-6 diopters;
- is strong - vision is too affected, its level is 6 diopters and above.
The reasons for the development of myopia
Ophthalmologists claim that this impaired vision can be detected in patients of any age, but most often nearsightedness is diagnosed in childhood( up to 12 years).Interestingly, myopia increases in adolescence, but in the life-time from 18 to 40 years, vision stabilizes, and an adult can note his significant improvement.
It is impossible to name any specific reasons for the development of myopia, but the provoking factors are well known to physicians - they are even identified in a separate list:
- Hereditary predisposition.There are clear statistics that if the parents have a place to be myopia, then the child will suffer from the same kind of visual impairment in 50% of cases.If the parents are healthy in terms of myopia, the risk of developing myopia in a child is only 8%.
There is an assumption that it is due to the genetic regularity that some defects appear in the production of collagen( connective tissue protein), which is necessary for the correct formation of the skin of the eye( sclera ).The situation is exacerbated if the newborn has nutritional problems and does not receive enough zinc, calcium and other microelements in his body, which causes the progress of myopia.Excessive eye strain.
- . Excessive eye strain.It is understood that the emergence and further development of the type of vision impairment can result in:
- being too long in front of the TV;
- insufficient lighting of the workplace in the office and at home;
- reading a lying or too strong approach of a book / magazine to the eyes;
- incorrect posture when engaging in writing;
- Too long and frequent use of a computer for work or entertainment.
- Violation of correction rules.This will cause an active progression of myopia.If glasses or contact lenses have been illiterate for work, the eye muscles will constantly be in a stressed state, and this automatically increases the degree of myopia.By the way, this provoking factor is manifested in cases when people independently pick up their glasses, buy them without a prescription.
Note: if signs of vision deterioration and myopia develop, then you should seek qualified medical help.Only an ophthalmologist will be able to examine the eyes, prescribe corrective measures and write out glasses.If the first signs of myopia are ignored, then this will result in a rapid progression of myopia and a severe deterioration of vision.
Nearsightedness of progressive type
Physicians consider the state of the patient as a near-sightedness of a progressing nature, for which a decrease in the dioptric vision per year is characteristic.Very often, a similar problem occurs in childhood and adolescence - there are large loads on the muscles of the eyes, at the same time the period of body growth is still going on( eyes also grow and develop).There are cases when progressive myopia leads to problems in the tissues of the eyes due to a violation of their nutrition( insufficiency), problems with the retina( it can rupture or exfoliate), a violation of the vitreous body( it grows turbid).
Please note: , for the above reasons, people with diagnosed vision impairment are strongly advised against labor activity, which is associated with lifting weights or being in a bent condition.Also, you can not engage in those sports that are characterized by a sharp shaking of the body( boxing, jumping in length or height, wrestling and so on).Ignoring this recommendation in most cases leads to complete blindness.
Progressing myopia refers to quite dangerous diseases.The fact is that such a rapidly flowing pathological process leads to irreversible changes in the retina( concerns its central parts), which automatically provokes a strong decrease in visual acuity.
Treatment / correction of myopia
Doctors can diagnose and treat both the treatment and correction when diagnosing this type of visual impairment.
As for the correction, it is worth highlighting a few of the most important points:
- The doctor can prescribe wearing glasses or contact lenses.But it should be borne in mind that an independent selection of such devices to improve vision can have the opposite effect and only exacerbate the problem.
- If the myopia only has arisen and has not yet taken a progressive form of flow, then a competent specialist will definitely recommend adjusting the diet.In order to receive micronutrients and vitamins important for maintaining a good vision, the menu should include:
- spinach, cottage cheese, eggs;
- blueberries, carrots and parsley( greens);
- pumpkin, diet meat and fish.
- It will be useful to take classes from the course of general restorative therapy - for example, an ophthalmologist can prescribe a course of massage of the collar zone, swimming, contrast showers and other physiotherapeutic procedures that can improve and strengthen vision.
The most important method of correcting myopia is training the muscles of the eyes, this gymnastics should be held regularly and for a long period, then the results will be replaced.
Gymnastics for eyes with myopia
There are three basic complexes of gymnastics for the eyes with myopia, which have a corrective effect.
Complex № 1
It is well known to doctors that one of the important roles in vision impairment is circulatory problems and therefore the following exercises are mandatory:
- It is necessary to move the eyes horizontally to the left and to the right.It should be done at an average tempo, preferably when the peak of the right or left side is reached, focus the eye, without holding your breath, for a few seconds( maximum 5).
- We make movements in the vertical direction, that is, up and down.The pace of the exercise should be calm, when reaching the peak of the top or bottom of the eye, you need to stay for 5 seconds.
- Perform the rotation with your eyes.First, do this exercise in a clockwise direction, then translate the view directly in front of you and focus it.Then move the eyes in the opposite direction( counter-clockwise).
- Strongly shut your eyes for 2-3 seconds, then open them and relax.
- Make the eye movements diagonally - look first in the upper right corner, then move the view to the lower left corner, then look straight for 2 seconds.After such a short break, we repeat the movement, but we already move the view first to the upper left corner, then to the lower right corner.
- We put a finger on the bridge of the nose and try to translate the look so that you can see it with two eyes at the same time.
- Do a quick blink for 30 seconds.
Note: such exercises to improve blood circulation should be done at least 1 time per day.Each exercise is repeated 5-6 times, then we make a break for 10-20 seconds and proceed to the next one.
Complex № 2
It should be performed immediately after a set of corrective exercises, which improves blood circulation in the eyes. The complete complex should last no more than 5 minutes:
- We reject the head back and at the same time take a deep breath.Then you need to move your head forward and exhale loudly.
- Sit on a chair, lean back on his back and close your eyes, then close your eyes for 3-5 seconds, then open your eyes wide and return the body to a level position( move away from the back of the chair, straighten your back).
- Put your hands on the waist( belt), slowly turn your head to the right and simultaneously move your eyes so that it rests against the elbow of your right hand.Then immediately do this exercise to the left and only after that you can return to the starting position and hold the view in front of you for 2-3 seconds.
- Translate look up, and do a few rotations with the eyes: first clockwise and then counterclockwise.
- Pull out your hands in front of you, look focused on your fingertips.Now take a deep breath, while raising your hands up.Exhalation is done when the arms are lowered to the starting position.When doing this exercise, you should not move your head in any way.
Note: these exercises can and should be performed outside the complex number 1, in total, 5-6 such approaches need to be done per day.If a person works at a computer, then a similar gymnastics for the eyes is shown to him every 60-90 minutes.
Complex № 3
This complex provides relaxation to the eyes, which relieves fatigue.
- Open eyes draw the "eight" in the air - do it slowly and calmly, the eyeballs should move in different directions, that is, the "eight" is drawn from right to left, from top to bottom, and vice versa.
- Pull the right hand forward and look at her thumb.We freeze for 5 seconds and then begin to move the hand to the right slowly and smoothly, and the look at the same time does not come off the finger.Note that you can not turn your head when doing this exercise.Repeat with left hand.
- Raise your hand in front of you - its thumb should be at a distance of a maximum of 30 cm from the eyes.Now for 5 seconds we look at the tip of the thumb with both eyes, then one eye is closed, but the eye of the open eye remains at the same place - the time is 5 seconds, then we open both eyes for another 5 seconds and close the other eye.We perform such "alternating" views at least 10 times for each eye.
Note: every exercise from the complex number 3 must be performed 5-7 times, if there are no special instructions to this effect.
Treatment of myopia
The implication is the use of laser correction of myopia, which is shown only to adults and when diagnosing a stable visual impairment, that is, with progressive myopia, this treatment is contraindicated.
Laser correction is performed only after a full examination of the patient, he will have to stay for some time in the inpatient department, but in general this procedure is characterized by painlessness and the shortest period of rehabilitation.After laser correction, the patient returns normal vision, and absolutely all restrictions are removed.
Nearsightedness is not fatal, but dangerous enough.Despite the fact that the patient will wear glasses and even perform special gymnastics for the eyes, there is always the risk of detachment or rupture of the retina, and this is the direct way to complete blindness.Therefore, even minor eye disorders should be diagnosed by an ophthalmologist.
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapeutist of the highest qualification category