Halyazion: causes, symptoms, treatment
Mar 05, 2018
Halyazion( from the Greek - a nodule) is a pathological formation on the century that develops from the specific sebaceous glands( meibomian glands) that are at the edge of the century.Halyazion on the eye is formed as a result of blockage of the gland duct, accumulation of secretion and inflammation in it.Table of Contents: Causes of Halazion Symptoms of Halazion How to Identify Halyazion Treatment of Halyazion
Causes of Halazion
The only cause of this disease is a blockage of the meibomian duct.As a result, fat secreted by the gland can not go outside, accumulates in the gland itself, causing its pathological increase.Attachment of the infection leads to an inflammatory process, which is manifested by an even larger enlargement of the gland.
Factors contributing to the onset of the chalasia of the upper eyelid or lower eyelid:
- chronic blepharitis;
- diabetes mellitus;
- oily skin.
Diseases of other organs can also provoke the appearance of chalazion by changing the qualitative composition of the secretion of the fat glands.
These diseases include :
- diseases of the gastrointestinal tract( chronic pancreatitis, enterocolitis, cholecystitis and biliary dyskinesia),
Against the backdrop of insufficient hygiene of the face and eyelids, the halazion is able to recur.
Symptoms of halidion
The disease manifests itself in the form of a small dense formation in the lower or upper eyelid.There is a halyazion in the thickness of the cartilage of the century, with its palpation( palpation) there is no pain and a pronounced mobility is determined.In the absence of therapeutic measures haljazion slowly grows, increasing to 4-6 mm.
In later stages of development, haljazion becomes visible from the side in the form of the skin of the eyelid.When viewed from the side of the eye in the century, there is a reddish patch with a grayish speck in the center.At the same time, several haljazions may appear on one or on different eyes.
For especially large formations, there are a number of symptoms:
- discomfort in the eye;
- itching and lacrimation;
- increased sensitivity of the eye to touch;
- visual impairment.
Halation in a child as a result of prolonged pressure on the cornea can lead to astigmatism and a perceptible distortion of vision.
Danger of suppuration of haljazion, which is marked reddening of the eyelid and eyes, pulsation in the century, often accompanied by pain, softening of the node.Halyazion can lead to blepharitis.In the absence of treatment, haljazion with suppuration can spontaneously open, most often it is opened from the side of the eye, as a result of which there is a purulence from the eye, in the mornings there is gluing of the eyelids as a result of the release of pus.
How to identify halalions
Diagnosis of this disease does not cause difficulties - it is enough just to examine and feel the eyelid.Of course, it should be done by an ophthalmologist, but the patient himself can assume a diagnosis of "halyazion".
A doctor's examination is needed to distinguish halyazion from a more dangerous disease that occurs with similar symptoms, from meibomian adenocarcinoma.To confirm the diagnosis, the doctor may prescribe a biopsy followed by a histological examination.
Treatment of haljazione
In the initial stage of the disease conservative methods of treatment are effective enough.A good effect is provided by instillation( instillation) of eye drops with a disinfectant. In the treatment of halazion, physiotherapeutic methods of treatment are actively used:
- UHF therapy;
- massage of the eyelid with occluded gland;
- compresses with dry heat.
It should be noted that the heating during haljazione is contraindicated when signs of inflammation appear.It is due to the fact that the effect of heat on the purulent process leads to its spread to surrounding tissues - the probability of phlegmon or abscess of the century is high.Conservative treatment of halazion in a child is most often used, since it has a minimum of complications and almost does not give him unpleasant sensations.
Invasive methods of treatment include injections of glucocorticosteroids.In this case, a thin needle is injected into the haljazion and a small amount of the drug is administered( diprospan).The consequence of this is a gradual resorption of the nodule on the eyelid.
Surgery for cholazion refers to surgical methods of treating this pathology.Intervention is performed in the clinic under local anesthesia.The doctor injects a small amount of local anesthetic into the eyelid, then makes a small incision( 2-4 mm) through which the halachion is removed along with its tight capsule.
The cut can be made from the outside of the eyelid - in this case a small scar remains on it.Another option is an incision from the side of the conjunctiva, in which the scar is not visible, but in the postoperative period there may be unpleasant sensations when blinking due to a scar.
After the operation of a halazion, a seam is applied to the incision, and a bandage covering the eye is placed on the eyelid.Wear a bandage for one or two days.Within a week after the operation, anti-inflammatory drops and ophthalmic ointments should be used.
Operation is slightly more difficult with spontaneously opened chaliazione.In this case, the fistula is excised so that there is no recurrence of the disease.In this case, the scar can be slightly larger - up to 1 cm, and the postoperative period slightly lengthens.
Treatment of halazione by laser
Removing halazion by laser is a modern alternative to conventional surgery. In this case, the skin of the eyelid is cut with a laser, and the content of the meibomian gland evaporates with the help of laser radiation.This method has several advantages:
- Less traumatic for the eye.
- No need to apply seams.
- Completely no risk of relapse.
- Cosmetic is more preferred.
To reduce the risk of injury to the cornea after surgery, it is recommended to wear soft contact lenses( without diopters) during the recovery period.
Measures for the prevention of halalion include compliance with hygiene measures: washing, not abuse of cosmetics.Timely treatment of any eye pathology( blepharitis, meibomita) at times reduces the likelihood of catching halyazion.Common restorative measures, such as hardening, taking vitamins, will increase the reactivity of the body and almost completely prevent the development of haljazion.
Roman Gudkov, anesthesiologist