Hypoplasia of testicles - the essence of the problem, causes, symptoms, consequences, treatment methods and prevention
Testicles( testicles) are an important part of the male reproductive system, which is responsible for the production of sex hormones and spermatozoa.Androgen deficiency can result in a number of pathologies.One of them is testicular hypoplasia.The essence of the problem The manifestations and symptoms of testicular hypoplasia Causes of pathology Consequences of testicular hypoplasia Diagnosis of pathology Treatment of testicular hypoplasia
The essence of the problem
In the embryonic period, the testes develop in the abdominal cavity, then descend into the scrotum.As a rule, this occurs before childbirth, or for two days after birth.
The man has two testicles, each located in the corresponding sac in the scrotum. The diameter of a healthy testicle is 5 to 7 cm.
Insufficient development of one or both testicles is called hypoplasia.It is an inborn pathology that develops under the influence of negative factors on the mother's body. The size of the undeveloped testicle does not exceed 4 cm in diameter.
The pathology proceeds in one-sided or bilateral form:
- Unilateral hypoplasia. Undeveloped right or left testis.The second develops without pathologies, and has a normal size and shape.Sometimes a healthy organ can be slightly enlarged in size due to a double load, because it performs the functions and for the patient.In rare cases, the pathology is accompanied by a decrease in testosterone levels.In this case, cases of serious violations of reproductive function and hormonal background are extremely rare.
- Bilateral hypoplasia. Both testicles are underdeveloped.At the same time, there is not only a cosmetic defect, but also serious problems of male health.The pathology of this form is always accompanied by pronounced hormonal disorders and problems with the reproductive system.In some cases, the disease is accompanied by Klinefelter's syndrome - the presence of an extra X-chromosome.
Important! In hypoplasia, an underdeveloped organ does not fully perform its functions.
Manifestations and symptoms of testicular hypoplasia
The pathology in men is manifested as follows:
- is broken testosterone production;
- disturbs the process of sperm formation.
When one testicle suffers, hormone deficiency is not pronounced, as the testosterone secretion is taken over by a healthy organ.In this case, a man can lead a full life and have offspring, without resorting to special treatment.
Symptomatic of testosterone deficiency in men with pathology of both testicles:
- inadequate ejaculate production;
- decreased sexual desire;
- Smoothness or absence of secondary sexual characteristics;
- problems with potency.
Men with this form of hypoplasia are infertile, as viable spermatozoa are not produced in the testes.
Unilateral hypoplasia, as a rule, is asymptomatic and is diagnosed only during routine medical examination.
Attention! The main symptom of pathology is the size of the organ is less than the norm.
Causes of pathology
Hypoplasia of testicles is a congenital disease that occurs against the background of intrauterine growth disorders or for genetic reasons.
The causes of the pathology:
- heredity.The likelihood of an abnormality increases if the pathology is observed in other men in the family;
- the effect of negative factors on the fetus during pregnancy.
These factors include:
- diseases and sexually transmitted infections;
- hormone-active tumors in the mother;
- Drug use, smoking and alcoholism;
- reception of hormonal drugs by a woman during pregnancy;
- unbalanced and under-nutrition;
- autoimmune lesions of testicular gland tissue or trophism disorder;
- frequent visits to the solarium, irradiation;
- disorders of the central nervous system of the child during difficult delivery.
Often pathology is combined with hypoplasia of other organs of the endocrine system, for example, the thyroid gland.
Consequences of testicular hypoplasia
Hypoplasia is a serious disease that can lead to the most severe consequences.
Among them are:
- Male infertility. In the testicles, spermatozoa are formed and mature.Any disorder, pathological process or abnormality affects the quantity and quality of spermatozoa.With unilateral hypoplasia, one should not worry, since the main function is performed by a healthy organ.This is enough for fertilization.Bilateral hypoplasia leads to complete infertility, because both organs do not function.A deficiency of testosterone.
- . leads to a decrease in potency, libido and the absence of secondary male sexual characteristics.In the affected organ, sperm production is impaired.Atrophy and degeneration of the testicles
- . Over time, if the pathology is not treated, it can lead to atrophy of the testicles, which will add problems physically and psychologically.
- Oncology. In some cases, hypoplasia can trigger the development of benign or malignant tumors.
Diagnosis of pathology
Hypoplasia of the testicles is diagnosed on examination with a doctor, during which they pay attention to such indices:
- volume and dimensions of the scrotum;
- condition of the mammary glands;
- the size of the penis;
- approximate volume of gonads;
- presence of sagging and folding of the scrotum;
- dimensions and symmetry of testicles;
- other secondary sexual characteristics.
In a patient with hypoplasia, cryptorchidism can develop in parallel - in which the testicle remains in the abdominal cavity or inguinal canal, and does not descend into the scrotum.In such cases, ultrasound examination and laparoscopy are prescribed.
For genetic diseases, a method is used to determine the chromosome set.Adult men are prescribed a spermogram and a blood test for the amount of sex hormones.
Treatment of testicular hypoplasia
The method of treatment is prescribed depending on the form of the disease.
With this form of therapy is not performed, but it is recommended to conduct regular preventive examinations and monitor the overall health of male health. Methods for the prevention of complications include:
- annual visit to the urologist and endocrinologist, in time to identify possible progression;
- correction of the diet;
- timely treatment of inflammation of the genitourinary system;
- strengthening of immunity;
- rejection of bad habits.
Several pathologies are used for this pathology.
This method is most successful for patients suffering from bilateral hypoplasia.Testosterone preparations and the duration of the course are prescribed only by a specialist.Dosage is calculated individually for each patient.
Important! It is absolutely forbidden to take medicines .
Hormone replacement therapy is prescribed by courses, or is carried out on an ongoing basis.
This method is used only in extreme cases: to get rid of malignant tumors or to eliminate a cosmetic defect.The operation involves the removal of one or both testicles.After the operation, hormone therapy
is prescribed. To eliminate the cosmetic defect, the following methods are used:
- donor organ transplantation;
- plastic for the purpose of correcting the appearance of the scrotum.
Parallel consultations are held, and if necessary, treatment by a therapist.
Infertility treatment and cryopreservation
In some cases, hypoplasia can give a complication in the form of teratozoospermia.With this pathology, the ejaculate contains a low percentage of healthy and active spermatozoa.One of the treatment options is therapy with chronic gonadotropin.This drug increases the number of normal spermatozoa.Then, using the cryopreservation procedure, the active sperm cells are frozen.
Prophylactic measures for testicular hypoplasia
Prevention measures exist that avoid complicating the disease:
- Avoid the effects of negative factors during pregnancy;
- timely treat inflammation of the genitourinary system;
- do not use linen and diapers for the newborn;
- increase immunity;
- observe the rules of personal hygiene of the child;
- do not allow injuries to the genitals.
Regular preventive examinations allow timely diagnosis of the disease and choose an effective method of therapy.
Radevich Igor Tadeushevich, sexually pathological andrologist at the Family Planning Center