Heart failure: symptoms, forms, treatment
Heart failure is a condition in which a person's heart loses the ability to work normally and supply all organs with the right amount of blood for some reason.This disease is often diagnosed and statistically more common in female patients.Table of contents: Types, types and forms of heart failure Causes of heart failure development Symptoms of heart failure How heart failure is diagnosed Treatment of heart failure
Types, types and forms of heart failure
The most important classification, which is a priority -. It is accepted to distinguish two types of heart failure:
- Acute heart failure.The development of the disease is always sharp and can range from a few minutes to several hours.The main causes of this type of disease are myocardial infarction, acute failure of the heart valves( aortic and / or mitral), rupture of the walls of the left ventricle.There is acute cardiac insufficiency with cardiogenic shock, pulmonary edema and cardiac asthma.
- Chronic heart failure.In this case, the disease develops gradually, it can progress for several weeks, and even for several years.The cause of chronic heart failure may be long-term anemia, congenital or acquired heart defects, arterial hypertension.In its turn, chronic heart failure is divided into 4 subspecies:
- The disease occurs almost asymptomatically, but the person begins to notice the appearance of dyspnea during physical exertion( for example, when climbing the stairs).
- A person complains of shortness of breath after climbing the stairs to the ground floor level, physical activity involuntarily decreases, the first manifestations of the symptoms of the disease in question appear.
- Dyspnea and fast fatigue appear even with a simple walk, the minimum physical load provokes a worsening of the condition, but during rest everything stabilizes.
- Symptoms of heart failure are pronounced even at rest, with little physical activity, serious cardiovascular disorders occur.
This disease can be classified according to the location of the pathological condition. In this case, doctors will allocate:
- left ventricular heart failure;
- right ventricular heart failure;
- Mixed Heart Failure.
And one more direction, which can cause an additional classification of heart failure - is the origin. Allocate:
- myocardial heart failure;
- congestive heart failure;
- combined heart failure.
Causes of heart failure
This disease most often occurs against the background of heart damage, a violation of the ability of this body to "deliver" blood to all organs and tissues. Doctors to the main reasons for the development of heart failure include:
- heart defects( congenital / acquired);
- sustained high blood pressure( hypertension);
- is ischemic heart disease.
An interesting fact: in diagnosing heart failure in women is often given by doctors, which is caused by high blood pressure of a permanent nature.If the disease in question is diagnosed in men, then its cause is often ischemic heart disease.
There are several factors that may not be specific causes for the development of heart failure, but act as "provocateurs." These include:
- permanent cardiac rhythm disorder( arrhythmia);
- diabetes mellitus of different type / species;
- abuse of alcoholic beverages;
Note: all of the listed causes of heart failure may trigger the onset of symptoms of cardiac asthma.This condition poses a danger to human health and life, emergency medical care is required.
Symptoms of heart failure
This disease is very important to diagnose in a timely manner, because only in this case it will be possible to provide the patient with competent medical care.But the first suspicions of the disease can arise in the patient himself, if he can differentiate the symptoms.It is remarkable that the clinical picture will be different depending on which ventricle of the heart is affected by pathology.
In left ventricular heart failure, the following symptoms will occur:
- dyspnea - at the onset of the disease appears only against the background of physical exertion, with the progression of the pathology worries the patient and at rest;
- Cyanosis - at the beginning of the development of heart failure periodically blush hands, lips, feet, and then this phenomenon extends to areas of the body located close to the heart;
- breathing accompanied by dry rales.
If the right ventricle of the heart develops, the patient will complain about:
- edema of the upper and lower extremities for no apparent reason;
- intermittent pain in the right upper quadrant with denial of liver disease.
Note: whatever type / type of heart failure does not develop, the person will complain about increased fatigue, reduced physical activity.
How heart failure is diagnosed
The pronounced symptoms of the disease in question are the reason to visit a doctor for examination.Diagnosis of heart failure specialist can and the clinical picture, the patient's complaints.But it is not enough to diagnose a particular disease under consideration, it is necessary to reveal the true cause of its development even at the stage of the patient's examination - this will depend on the tactics of treatment and the final result.
Diagnostic tests prescribed by doctors in the diagnosis of heart failure:
- blood tests - general clinical, biochemical;
- electrocardiogram - is performed at rest, but for the differentiation of the disease, an ECG and in a state of physical activity may be required;
- chest radiography.
Treatment of heart failure
Therapy aimed at restoring the normal operation of the heart should be comprehensive. The task of medical treatment of heart failure is as follows:
- To stop the congestion of the heart muscle - doctors prescribe beta-blockers that help reduce the heart rate and lower blood pressure.
- Rapid relief from severe symptoms of heart failure - experts recommend taking a course of taking glycosides.They can have a quick and lasting effect.If there is a development of acute heart failure, the patient is intravenously injected with glycosides to obtain an immediate effect.If it is necessary to eliminate the symptoms of the chronic form of the disease in question, doctors prescribe long-acting glycosides.
- Getting rid of the effects of heart failure - the patient should take diuretics to eliminate edema.
Note: if the cause of heart failure is arrhythmia, and drug treatment does not give positive results, it is advisable to conduct surgery.Surgeons install "drivers" of rhythm and defibrillators, replace valves and solve the problem of blockage of the arteries.
If a person is diagnosed with heart failure, then it becomes a good reason to reconsider your lifestyle.Experts recommend not only to stop smoking and drinking alcoholic beverages, but also begin to engage in physical training.Do not immediately burden your body - excessive physical exertion can worsen the state of health and lead the patient to a hospital bed, but morning exercises, walks should be present.
It is very important to reduce your weight, if there are problems in this direction - contact a dietician who will choose the optimal diet.
Note: is an important aspect in adjusting the rhythm of life against the background of heart failure is the refusal to consume salt.It is this product that facilitates the retention of liquid( water) in the body, and this, in turn, leads to an increase in the burden on the heart.
Treatment of heart failure with folk methods
Does it make sense to turn to traditional medicine when diagnosing the disease in question?Even doctors say yes.But only after the patient has undergone a complete examination, the cause of the development of heart failure will be clarified and the main treatment will be performed.
Take 2 tablespoons of ground bean pods( fresh or dry), add them to enameled dishes and add 750 ml of water.Everything is put on average fire and brought to a boil, the cooking time is 5 minutes.
Take in equal proportions leaves of motherwort, mint, hawthorn, lily of the valley and lemon balm, chop and mix.Type 5 tablespoons of the resulting collection and add to the boiling beans, cook the remedy for another 3 minutes.The medicine is infused for 4 hours, then filtered.
How to take: 4 tablespoons 1 time per day 20 minutes before meals.With each use in the broth add 20 drops of Zelenin.
How to strengthen the heart muscle
You will need the fruits of hawthorn - they should be absolutely ripe.Raw materials in quantity of 1 kg are poured with boiling water( 1 liter), put on moderate fire and cook for 20 minutes.
After this, 2/3 cups of sugar and in the same amount of honey are added to the finished product.Everything is mixed and left in a warm room for 4 hours.
How to take: every day 2 tablespoons before each meal.Duration of treatment is 30 days.
Treatment with herbs
Prepare a collection of flax seeds, roots of the stalk and birch leaves, which are taken in the proportion of 4: 3: 3.Then take 2 teaspoons( without a slide!) Collect and pour 200 ml of boiling water, let us brew for 30-40 minutes, filter.
How to take: 1/2 cups a day in small sips.The duration of treatment is not limited - this broth can be consumed until complete recovery or stable remission.
Treatment of the Kalina
It is necessary to take 1 tablespoon of berries of the viburnum, knead well until the appearance of juice, add to them 1 tablespoon of honey and pour 300 ml of boiling water.Infused for 30-40 minutes.
How to take: during the day you need to drink the prepared food in small portions.Duration of treatment - 1 month, then you need to take a break for 4 weeks.In general, such courses during the year can be done 3-4 pieces.
Heart failure is considered quite a serious disease, which even during periods of stable remission breaks the habitual rhythm of a person's life.But it is enough only to follow clearly all the appointments and recommendations of specialists, to use the funds from the category of traditional medicine( strictly after their approval by the treating doctor!) And you can introduce the disease into a stage of persistent remission, restore the former activity of life.
Yana Tsygankova, medical reviewer, therapeutist of the highest qualification category.