Tachycardia - signs, types of tachycardia, treatment
Tachycardia in medicine denotes heart palpitations.It is very easy to diagnose the disease under consideration - it is enough to know the norms of heart rate.In the prone position in a healthy adult, the number of heartbeats does not exceed 80, while in the standing position, the same index will be equal to 100. Any excess of these norms can be considered a tachycardia.
Some doctors do not differentiate tachycardia as an independent disease, most often it is a syndrome on the background of various pathologies in the body.Table of contents: Types of tachycardia Causes of tachycardia Symptoms of tachycardia How is tachycardia diagnosed Treatment of tachycardia
Types of tachycardia
Tachycardia is divided into two main types - physiological and pathological.In the first case, it will be about increasing the heart rate on the background of physical exertion, but at rest these indications do not exceed the norm. The pathological tachycardia always occurs against the backdrop of any disease - for example, the appearance of this syndrome can lead to problems in the endocrine system, alcohol poisoning, central nervous system diseases, mental disorders, and more.
Note: development of pathological tachycardia is dangerous for human health and life.There is a violation of the hemodynamics of the heart( blood volume decreases), the ventricles do not have time to fill up with blood, the blood pressure catastrophically decreases, and the flow of blood to the organs and tissues( and to the heart as well) practically ceases.This condition can provoke coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction.
Doctors classify tachycardia by the source that generates electrical impulses in the heart:
- sinus tachycardia - appears against the background of increased activity of the sinus node;
- paroxysmal tachycardia - the rhythm generator is located in the atria or ventricles.
More often doctors diagnose sinus tachycardia, and for the paroxysmal type the disease in question will be characterized by attacks of rapid heartbeat, which always spontaneously arise and also spontaneously disappear.For paroxysmal tachycardia, a constant heart palpitations is considered the norm.
Causes of tachycardia
The reasons for the rapid heart rate may be a variety of factors - doctors during the examination of a patient with a diagnosed tachycardia necessarily find out the true cause of this condition. There are the following factors that can become agents of the disease under consideration:
- sustained high blood pressure( hypertension);
- stable low blood pressure( hypotension);
- disorders of the autonomic nervous system;
- arrhythmia in various forms;
- reduced hemoglobin level;
- diseases of infectious etiology;
- long-term use of certain drugs;
- increasing the functionality of the thyroid gland;
- pathology of the endocrine system;
- malignant and / or benign tumors.
But a tachycardia can be formed and against an unstable psycho-emotional state( for example, with a sense of fear, anger, anxiety), and with physical exertion.
Symptoms of tachycardia
Sinus tachycardia can manifest not only persistent heart palpitations, but also increased fatigue, drowsiness, general weakness, decreased efficiency.Often, patients complain of pain, a feeling of heaviness in the chest, in the anatomy of the heart.
Note: if the tachycardia worries the patient for a long time, there is no medical help, then a critical drop in blood pressure may be observed, diuresis, upper and lower extremities often become cold.
How is tachycardia diagnosed
Of course, tachycardia has pronounced symptoms and most patients come to see a cardiologist already confident in their diagnosis.And even if the expert confirms the patient's assumption, you will need to undergo a complete examination to find out the reason for the appearance of the syndrome in question.
In the framework of diagnosis of tachycardia, the doctor appoints:
- electrocardiogram - this type of examination is given the main role;
- computed tomography;
- magnetic resonance imaging of the heart;
- electrophysiological examination of the heart.
In addition, the patient undergoes a general examination - he passes blood tests, urine tests, he carries out examinations and the brain.
Treatment of tachycardia
If a patient has been diagnosed with a physiological sinus tachycardia, no specific treatment will be prescribed.Appeared for medical help will be offered to reduce physical exertion, undergo examination by the therapist to stabilize the psycho-emotional background, get rid of excess weight.
In the case of diagnosing pathological tachycardia, treatment must necessarily be and the cardiologist in this case works in tandem with other specialists - it is important not only to identify the cause of the syndrome in question and relieve the patient of the symptoms of tachycardia, but also to undergo a full course of therapy.
When appointing tachycardia, doctors adhere to the following rules:
- With extracardiac tachycardia, neurologist consultation is required.Appointments are reduced to the selection of medications for sedation - truquilane, seduxen, Relanium and others.
- If the syndrome in question was triggered by anemia, hypovolemia and / or hyperthyroidism, then it is first necessary to get rid of these pathologies.Otherwise, the appointment of medications that reduce the heart rate, there may be a critical drop in blood pressure, the picture of the hemodynamics of the heart will deteriorate.
- When diagnosing thyrotoxicosis and against its background of tachycardia, first the therapy is performed by an endocrinologist - it is advisable to prescribe to patients beta-blockers( for example, oxprenolol).If there are contraindications to the use of this kind of medicines, then specialists can choose in favor of calcium antagonists( for example, verapamil).
- Sinus tachycardia is triggered by with heart failure - the patient is treated with beta-blockers and glycosides of a fast or prolonged action.
With diagnosed paroxysmal tachycardia, you can bring relief to the patient with a massage - you just need to apply pressure to the eyeballs.And only if the positive result does not give such a method, doctors begin intravenous administration of antiarrhythmic drugs - for example, cordarone or verapamil.
Note: , in diagnosing ventricular tachycardia, shows immediate hospitalization, emergency care, and a long course of anti-relapse antiarrhythmic therapy.
Normalization of the rhythm of life
It is compulsory after diagnosing tachycardia to get a consultation from a nutritionist - you will need to adjust the diet.It is strictly forbidden to use such patients alcoholic beverages, coffee, strong black tea, any "energy", chocolate, spicy seasonings.
Since the tachycardia requires the normalization of the weight of the patient, it will be necessary to adhere to a low-calorie diet:
- to exclude from the diet any baked goods from pastry;
- to give up sweet fruit;
- in the menu enter raw vegetables and fruits of unsweetened varieties;
- correctly prepare lean meat and fish lean varieties - steamed, boiled.
Do not recommend exercise for tachycardia, but you can not tolerate hypodynamia.Hence, you need to walk more, wash the floors without using a mop, and in the morning perform the simplest charge.The main task is to exclude cardio-operations( squats, running, climbing the stairs).
It is necessary to reduce the risk of depression, to protect yourself from stressful situations, to learn how to react calmly to various problems and troubles.
Treatment of tachycardia with folk remedies
In folk medicine, there are many recipes that are recommended for use in the treatment of tachycardia.In principle, official medicine has nothing against this treatment, but only on one condition:
When the first signs of tachycardia appear, you should immediately contact specialists for examination and therapeutic appointments.If the patient's state of health does not cause fear, then doctors can allow the use of folk remedies.
And one more nuance - the composition of the following recipes includes products that can provoke a strong attack of an allergic reaction, therefore, preliminary exclude the probability of such a development.Do not forget to make sure that there are no medical contraindications to the use of specific products - for example, in peptic ulcer of the stomach and duodenum, the combination of lemon and garlic is unacceptable.
Recipes of folk remedies for the treatment of tachycardia:
- It is necessary to take 18 nuts of almonds, 10 ml of tincture of valerian, 6 seeds of camphor, 16 leaves of geranium of room type, a glass of honey( 150 g), 4 lemons and 10 ml of hawthorn tincture.Now you need to peel the lemon from the peel and chop the pulp, pour it with honey.In the meat grinder, grind the almond fruits and leaves of the room geranium, mix everything and add the remaining ingredients.The resulting mixture should be mixed thoroughly, it is best to use a blender.
How to take: in the morning on an empty stomach for 1 dessert spoon of the remedy.Duration of the use of the drug is 25-30 days in a row, then a break for a month is made and, if necessary, the course of reception can be repeated.
- In the dishes, pour 250 ml of water and boil it, after boiling, pour into it a teaspoon with a good slide of Adonis grass.The agent is boiled exactly 3 minutes with a weak boil, then it remains for 3-4 hours for infusion.
How to take: a filtered decoction of Adonis grass should be consumed 1 tablespoon 3 times a day for 10 minutes before meals.Duration of use - 10-30 days during periods of exacerbation of tachycardia attacks.
- Grind along with the skin 0.5 kg lemons, add to them honey( the amount you need such that the lemon was completely "drowned" in honey) and 10 nucleoli of apricot kernels.
How to take: in the morning and in the evening before eating 1 tablespoon.
- Rub 10 garlic heads( they should be medium), squeeze out 10 lemons juice and mix everything with 1 liter of honey.The agent should be infused in a glass container for 7 days.
How to take: 4 teaspoons 1 time per day.The use of food does not depend on eating.The duration of such treatment is 2 months, not missing a single day.
Tachycardia is a very unpleasant disease that can occur in normal mode, when a patient only needs to undergo therapy from time to time.But there is also the development of tachycardia, which requires emergency surgery.Therefore, when there are signs of tachycardia, you just need to undergo examination and treatment - the forecast, in general, the experts make a favorable.
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapeutist of the highest qualification category.