Treatment of spasm of accommodation( false myopia)
Mar 26, 2018
The term "accommodation"( lat.) Literally means "adaptation."It implies the ability of the human eye to equally clearly perceive objects placed at different distances.
Adapting the eye to a normal perception of objects at different distances becomes possible as a result of joint actions of the lens, ciliary muscle and ciliary ligament.Contents: How is the accommodation implemented?Conditions and mechanism of normal accommodation Types of accommodation disorders Causes of spasm of accommodation of the eye Symptoms of accommodation spasm Accommodation spasm in children Diagnosis Treatment of spasm of accommodation
How is the accommodation accommodated?
The physiological state for the human eye is a "look into the distance" when all the muscle elements are in a state of relaxation.To focus on the subject that is near, you need the tension of the ciliary muscle and the relaxation of the same ligaments.As a result of the effect of the muscle-ligament elements, the lens, which is characterized by high elasticity, changes the curvature, that is, becomes more convex.Thus, his so-called."Optical power" can be increased by several diopters.This contributes to the optimal focusing of the light wave and the formation of a "picture" on the eye retina.
If the stimulus to accommodation is not present, the ciliary muscle is relaxed.A physiological deaccommodation develops, in which the human eye focuses "on infinity".
Conditions and mechanism of normal accommodation
The basic condition for physiological accommodation is a sufficient level of elasticity of the lens tissue.The overwhelming majority of people over the years it becomes lower.The lens has the best ability to change the curvature in childhood.
In the period of maturity( as a rule, after reaching 40 years), the possibility of a clear vision of objects located near is gradually reduced.Parallel presbyopia is fixed, also known as "age-long-sightedness".In elderly people( 60-70 years old), the possibility of accommodation is minimized.
With insufficient lighting( at dusk), it is extremely difficult for a person to see objects that are at a considerable distance.The average accommodation rate is 2.0 diopters, and in the twilight, hyperopia decreases by another 2.0 diopters, i.e. in people with diagnosed myopia, the index worsens by another 2 units.
In the role of a stimulus for accommodation, there is insufficiently precise focusing of the image on the retina under normal illumination.Information about defocusing comes to the central nervous system, which generates a special impulse;It is transmitted along the oculomotor nerve, which stimulates the reduction of the ciliary musculature.The tension of the ciliary ligaments decreases, and the lens slightly changes the degree of curvature, increasing the bulge.Thus, the focus shifts to the eye retina.If you look farther, then the signal about the absence of focusing does not arrive, the tension of the ciliary ligaments increases, and the lens again flattenes.
Types of accommodation disorders
The most important pathologies of accommodation include:
- paralysis;Age-related weakness( presbyopia);
Spasm of accommodation is most often diagnosed in children and young patients.Due to the violation of contraction and relaxation of the ciliary musculature, the patient can not sufficiently clearly perceive objects located at different distances.
Ophthalmologists define spasm as an excessively persistent tension in accommodation, caused by the strain of the ciliary muscle.The reduction does not disappear when there is no need for accommodation.
Important: according to medical statistics, one in six children and adolescents of school age suffers from this pathology.
Astromotion asthenopia is most typical for patients with farsightedness, astigmatism( including badly selected lenses or glasses).For this pathology are characterized by rapid fatigue of the eyes, a feeling of itching in the eyes, intense headaches and even vomiting.Eliminate this disorder by optical correction( correct selection of glasses or lenses).
Paralysis and paresis of accommodation are pathologies usually of a neurogenic origin.The cause of the pathology may be poisoning or trauma.For paralysis is characterized by a slight change in visual acuity, but a very significant reduction in the volume and reserves of accommodation.
The age-related attenuation of accommodation( presbyopia) is due to a decrease in the elasticity( compaction) of the lens due to natural age-related changes.Treatment is reduced to the selection of optimal glasses or lenses for correction of "near vision".
Causes of eye congestion
Among the factors leading to accommodation spasm include:
- poor illumination of the working field;
- excessive load on the organs of vision( long work behind the monitor or watching TV programs);
- non-observance of the minimum necessary distance to the page of printed text( 30 cm);
- weakness of the musculature of the back and cervical region;
- insufficient blood supply to the head and neck;
- poor sleep;
- physical inactivity;
- unbalanced diet;
- lack of vitamins.
Symptoms of accommodation spasm
For the pathology, the following clinical manifestations are characteristic:
- increased fatigue of the organs of vision when studying subjects near;
- burning sensation and rezi;
- redness of the eye ;
- Decreases the sharpness of the perception of a nearby object( less often - doubling);
- general fatigue and intense headaches after eye strain.
Note: if no action is taken, the pathological condition may persist for many months and even years.
Spasm of accommodation in children
In addition to the above reasons, the following violations can be attributed to the etiological factors:
- non-compliance with sleep and rest;
- mismatch of workplace height and child height;
- chronic shortage of fresh air;
- low physical activity.
During the diagnosis, the patient's complaints are taken into account.The doctor conducts a comprehensive survey, which includes the establishment of "accommodation stocks", viziography and the definition of refraction.
Treatment of spasm of accommodation
Note: this pathology is now considered by ophthalmologists and ophthalmologists as one of the most important reasons predisposing to the formation of nearsightedness in children and adolescents.
Frequent tension of the ciliary muscle worsens its blood supply.In this case, the development of dystrophic processes in the tissue is possible, which causes a fairly persistent deterioration in accommodation.
Diagnosis and therapy require a comprehensive approach.Before assigning the patient adequate treatment, it is required to identify the causes of the pathology.
Now for the relief of this pathological condition, drops are used to dilate the pupil and various exercises for the eyes are recommended.Patients are shown the course physiotherapeutic procedures - electro- / magneto- and laser stimulation, as well as electrophoresis with the chosen doctor's medications.
With a spasm of accommodation, droplets with 2.5% Irifrin solution are administered.Often appointed Midratsil( Tropikamid), which is analogous to Atropine.The drug promotes the dilatation of the pupil and the relaxation of the ciliary muscle.
Important: , after the drug is injected, causing a persistent dilatation of the pupil, at least 24 hours can not be applied to the eyes, and you can only walk in the shade.The minimum load, alternating with rest periods, is permissible only after the pupil starts responding adequately to light.
At least twice a year for children with a diagnosed spasm of accommodation it is advisable to undergo massage procedures, during which special attention should be paid to the cervical collar zone.
In the diet of the patient, one must necessarily include products enriched with vitamins, as well as macro- and microelements.The children are shown the drug Lutein Children's Complex.
To eliminate the spasm of accommodation, special exercises are conducted in the doctor's office under his direct supervision.Training of eye muscles is carried out with the help of specially designed newest apparatuses.
Patients should regularly perform exercises aimed at overall strengthening of the body, especially - the muscles of the back and cervical region.It is necessary as much as possible to be in the open air( preferably outside the city limits).Also useful are the exercises with accommodation spasm presented in this picture:
Prophylaxis and timely adequate therapy of this transitory pathology will prevent early development of persistent( true) myopia.
More detailed information about the spasm of accommodation and methods of its treatment in children you will get by viewing the video review:
Konev Alexander, the therapist