Than pyelonephritis is dangerous in pregnancy for a fetus
Mar 26, 2018
Pyelonephritis - an inflammatory process in the kidney tissue - is often first diagnosed with the onset of pregnancy.The pathology of the kidneys can manifest even in those women who have never previously presented complaints from the organs of the urinary system.
Inflammation of the kidney in pregnant women is also called gestational pyelonephritis.According to various sources, from 1% to 12% of all women who become pregnant suffer from this disease.
Why is it that future mothers are prone to urinary tract diseases and how dangerous is pyelonephritis in pregnancy?Let's try to understand.Contents: Causes of gestational pyelonephritis How dangerous pyelonephritis during pregnancy Symptoms of gestational pyelonephritis diagnosis of gestational pyelonephritis pyelonephritis Treatment in pregnancy Prevention of pyelonephritis in pregnancy
Causes of gestational pyelonephritis
Even with a completely normal pregnancy increasing uterus gradually compresses the nearby areasOrgans.The ureters also undergo increased pressure-the thin tubules, through which the urine formed comes from the kidneys toward the bladder.
When the outflow of urine slows due to compression of the ureters, fluid stagnation occurs, accompanied by the expansion of the kidneys.This increases the risk of bacterial contamination of the kidney tissue and the development of infection in this organ.
Gestational pyelonephritis is more likely to affect women, pregnant for the first time .In such expectant mothers, the anterior wall of the abdomen is more elastic, since they have not yet given birth.In this case, the uterus experiences greater resistance from the abdominal wall, and the ureters are compressed more strongly.The kidneys experience a significant load, which creates the conditions for the development of the inflammatory process in them.
The risk of developing gestational pyelonephritis is also increased by the following factors:
- previously suffered cystitis or pyelonephritis;
- woman's hypothermia, especially swimming in cool water or walking barefoot;
- already existing kidney pathologies, including their expansion;
- elevated blood pressure;
- absence of one kidney.
Thus, the greatest risk of the onset of gestational diabetes increases the already existing diseases of the kidneys or other organs of the future mother.
Than pyelonephritis is dangerous in pregnancy
The inflammatory process with gestational pyelonephritis usually occurs in both kidneys of . With the timely commencement of treatment, the pathological process quickly dies away due to antibiotic therapy.
However, not all future mothers consult a doctor even if they have symptoms of inflammation of the kidneys.In the first weeks after conception, fever and lower back pains women "write off" the characteristic manifestations of pregnancy.Indeed, such symptoms often appear in the first trimester.
Important ! If you miss the onset of the disease or refuse to take prescribed antibacterial drugs, then both kidneys can undergo pathological destructive changes.As a result, there are dangerous complications of pregnancy, such as gestosis.
In gestosis, not only the kidneys are damaged, but blood pressure is abnormally increased, which affects not only the woman, but also the developing fetus.In the kidneys can begin a purulent process, which requires not only medication, but in some cases, surgical intervention.
It is recommended that a future mother, in order to avoid such complications, monitor her state of health and control the functioning of the kidneys.If you have any suspicious pain or urine discoloration, you should immediately contact an specialist.This will quickly stop the process of inflammation of the kidneys at the initial stage with minimal impact of drugs on the woman's body.
Symptoms of gestational pyelonephritis
Manifestations of gestational pyelonephritis, as a rule, increase suddenly.
The most common symptoms are:
- increase in temperature to 38 degrees or more, as well as chills;
- pain in the lumbar region of the kidneys;
- painful sensations when urinating( if pyelonephritis is complicated by cystitis due to bacteria entering from the kidneys through the ureters into the bladder);
- change in color of urine and its volume;
- increased urge to urinate;
- weakness and general deterioration.
The nature of the manifestations largely depends on the period of pregnancy.So, in the first trimester, severe back pains are usually observed, radiating to the lower abdomen.In the second half of the gestation period, the pain is less pronounced, but kidney damage can be more dangerous.
In some cases, gestational pyelonephritis can occur almost asymptomatically.In this case, the disease can be detected only after the delivery of tests or the passage of ultrasound.
Diagnosis of gestational pyelonephritis
For the diagnosis of pyelonephritis, future mothers are prescribed such examinations:
- Urinalysis.Inflammation of the kidneys is indicated by a pathological increase in the number of leukocytes in the urine sample, the detection of protein and bacteria.
- Blood test.Gestational pyelonephritis is accompanied by an increase in the number of leukocytes in the blood and changes in ESR.
- ultrasound.Ultrasound will help assess the condition of the kidneys, detect signs of enlargement of the renal pelvis and other manifestations of pyelonephritis.
Additional tests are also performed to confirm the diagnosis of inflammation of the kidneys.To determine the variety of pathogenic bacteria, urine culture is performed on the flora and sensitivity to some antibiotics.According to the results of the analysis, the doctor will be able to prescribe the most effective antibacterial drug, which is especially important in pregnancy, because for a future mother, excessive intake of medications is unsafe.
In some cases, asymptomatic bacteriuria is diagnosed in pregnant women.In this case, the tests show the presence of bacteria in the urine, but no symptoms appear in the .This condition also requires compulsory treatment, because otherwise it is possible to infect the fetus with the appearance of concomitant severe complications.
Treatment of pyelonephritis in pregnant women
The following methods are used to control gestational pyelonephritis:
- Assign carefully selected antibiotics to fight the bacteria that caused pyelonephritis.The statement that pregnant antibiotics are contraindicated is incorrect.The doctor will choose the safest means for the fetus, and the lack of treatment is much more destructive than the action of the drugs.In the first trimester, semisynthetic or natural penicillins are more often prescribed, at a later date the list of permitted drugs is expanded.
- Appointment of auxiliary drugs: diuretic, detoxification, sedatives.
- Use of preparations containing only plant components to restore kidney function.Usually appoint Lecran 500, phytolysin, kanefron and other natural remedies.
- Compliance with the diet: in particular, the exclusion from the menu of seasonings, marinades, mushrooms, coffee, excessively salty food.Dairy products, chicken fillets, lean sea fish, fruit drinks are allowed.
- Carrying out the procedure of plasmapheresis for the purpose of detoxifying the woman's body.
- Catheterization of the ureters - in case of a violation of the outflow of urine.
- Surgical treatment.It is indicated in the presence of purulent and other complications.Decapsulation of the kidney, nephrostomy, excision of necrotic sites of kidney tissue can be performed.
Important! Acute pyelonephritis is treated only in a hospital.In the presence of asymptomatic bacteriuria, it is possible to conduct therapeutic measures at home.
If the treatment is successful, subsequent births are usually without complications.With the development of late toxicosis with impaired renal function, caesarean section can be recommended.
Prevention of pyelonephritis in pregnancy
Of course, it is better not to allow the appearance of gestational pyelonephritis than the entire pregnancy to fight its consequences.
To prevent the appearance of dangerous symptoms, the following actions will help:
- prevents the body from becoming overcooled, especially the abdomen and waist, and also the legs.That is why future mothers should forget about thin pantyhose in cold weather, about walking barefoot on a cool tile in the apartment;
- is significantly limited in the menu of spicy foods, spicy seasonings, garlic, vinegar, pickled vegetables, mushrooms, coffee;
- rejection of even minimal doses of alcohol and any cigarettes;
- salt restriction in the finished food;
- refusal from consumption of chips, crackers and other salted shop products;
- compliance with the water consumption rate.Do not torment yourself with thirst, but you also do not want to drink water in liters.The intake of liquid should be dosed: it is better to drink a few sips of water or juice every hour than to allow yourself one or two cups in a row after a long break;
- maintaining intimate hygiene to prevent bacterial contamination of the urinary tract;
- adherence to the principle of regularity of visiting the toilet "in a small way" to prevent the retention of urine in the body and the development of the bladder pathogenic bacteria;
- Prophylactic regular delivery of tests for possible detection of signs of pyelonephritis beginning.
The most reasonable choice will be observance of the above tips not only when carrying the fetus, but also long before the pregnancy begins.The absence of any kidney disease before the onset of conception and a general good health condition is a fairly reliable guarantee for the well-being of a future mother and the birth of a strong baby.
Vladimir Plisov, medical reviewer